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Abilify




CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism Of Action

The mechanism of action of aripiprazole in schizophrenia or bipolar mania, is unknown. However, the efficacy of aripiprazole could be mediated through a combination of partial agonist activity at D2 and 5-HT1A receptors and antagonist activity at 5-HT2A receptors. Actions at receptors other than D2, 5-HT1A, and 5-HT2A may explain some of the other clinical effects of aripiprazole (e.g., the orthostatic hypotension observed with aripiprazole may be explained by its antagonist activity at adrenergic alpha1 receptors).

Pharmacodynamics

Aripiprazole exhibits high affinity for dopamine D2 and D3, serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors (Ki values of 0.34 nM, 0.8 nM, 1.7 nM, and 3.4 nM, respectively), moderate affinity for dopamine D4, serotonin 5-HT2C and 5-HT7, alpha1-adrenergic and histamine H1 receptors (Ki values of 44 nM, 15 nM, 39 nM, 57 nM, and 61 nM, respectively), and moderate affinity for the serotonin reuptake site (Ki=98 nM). Aripiprazole has no appreciable affinity for cholinergic muscarinic receptors (IC50 > 1000 nM). [Aripiprazole functions as a partial agonist at the dopamine D2 and the serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, and as an antagonist at serotonin 5-HT2A receptor.]

Pharmacokinetics

ABILIFY activity is presumably primarily due to the parent drug, aripiprazole, and to a lesser extent, to its major metabolite, dehydro-aripiprazole, which has been shown to have affinities for D2 receptors similar to the parent drug and represents 40% of the parent drug exposure in plasma. The mean elimination half-lives are about 75 hours and 94 hours for aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole, respectively. Steady-state concentrations are attained within 14 days of dosing for both active moieties. Aripiprazole accumulation is predictable from single-dose pharmacokinetics. At steady-state, the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole is dose-proportional. Elimination of aripiprazole is mainly through hepatic metabolism involving two P450 isozymes, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. For CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, the mean elimination half-life for aripiprazole is about 146 hours.

Pharmacokinetic studies showed that ABILIFY DISCMELT Orally Disintegrating Tablets are bioequivalent to ABILIFY Tablets.

ORAL ADMINISTRATION

Absorption

Tablet: Aripiprazole is well absorbed after administration of the tablet, with peak plasma concentrations occurring within 3 hours to 5 hours; the absolute oral bioavailability of the tablet formulation is 87%. ABILIFY can be administered with or without food. Administration of a 15 mg ABILIFY Tablet with a standard high-fat meal did not significantly affect the Cmax or AUC of aripiprazole or its active metabolite, dehydro-aripiprazole, but delayed Tmax by 3 hours for aripiprazole and 12 hours for dehydro-aripiprazole.

Oral Solution: Aripiprazole is well absorbed when administered orally as the solution. At equivalent doses, the plasma concentrations of aripiprazole from the solution were higher than that from the tablet formulation. In a relative bioavailability study comparing the pharmacokinetics of 30 mg aripiprazole as the oral solution to 30 mg aripiprazole tablets in healthy subjects, the solution to tablet ratios of geometric mean Cmax and AUC values were 122% and 114%, respectively [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. The single-dose pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole were linear and dose-proportional between the doses of 5 mg to 30 mg.

Distribution

The steady-state volume of distribution of aripiprazole following intravenous administration is high (404 L or 4.9 L/kg), indicating extensive extravascular distribution. At therapeutic concentrations, aripiprazole and its major metabolite are greater than 99% bound to serum proteins, primarily to albumin. In healthy human volunteers administered 0.5 to 30 mg/day aripiprazole for 14 days, there was dose-dependent D2 receptor occupancy indicating brain penetration of aripiprazole in humans.

Metabolism and Elimination

Aripiprazole is metabolized primarily by three biotransformation pathways: dehydrogenation, hydroxylation, and N-dealkylation. Based on in vitro studies, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes are responsible for dehydrogenation and hydroxylation of aripiprazole, and N-dealkylation is catalyzed by CYP3A4. Aripiprazole is the predominant drug moiety in the systemic circulation. At steady-state, dehydro-aripiprazole, the active metabolite, represents about 40% of aripiprazole AUC in plasma.

Following a single oral dose of [14C]-labeled aripiprazole, approximately 25% and 55% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in the urine and feces, respectively. Less than 1% of unchanged aripiprazole was excreted in the urine and approximately 18% of the oral dose was recovered unchanged in the feces.

Drug Interaction Studies

Effects of other drugs on the exposures of aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole are summarized in Figure 1 and Figure 2, respectively. Based on simulation, a 4.5-fold increase in mean Cmax and AUC values at steady-state is expected when extensive metabolizers of CYP2D6 are administered with both strong CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors. A 3-fold increase in mean Cmax and AUC values at steady-state is expected in poor metabolizers of CYP2D6 administered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.

Figure 1: The effects of other drugs on aripiprazole pharmacokinetics

The effects of other drugs on aripiprazole pharmacokinetics - Illustration

Figure 2: The effects of other drugs on dehydro-aripiprazole pharmacokinetics

The effects of other drugs on dehydro-aripiprazole pharmacokinetics - Illustration

The effects of ABILIFY on the exposures of other drugs are summarized in Figure 3. A population PK analysis in patients with major depressive disorder showed no substantial change in plasma concentrations of fluoxetine (20 or 40 mg/day), paroxetine CR (37.5 or 50 mg/day), or sertraline (100 or 150 mg/day) dosed to steady-state. The steady-state plasma concentrations of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine increased by about 18% and 36%, respectively, and concentrations of paroxetine decreased by about 27%. The steady-state plasma concentrations of sertraline and desmethylsertraline were not substantially changed when these antidepressant therapies were coadministered with aripiprazole.

Figure 3: The effects of ABILIFY on pharmacokinetics of other drugs

The effects of ABILIFY on pharmacokinetics of other drugs - Illustration

 

Studies in Specific Populations

Exposures of aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole in specific populations are summarized in Figure 4 and Figure 5, respectively. In addition, in pediatric patients (10 to 17 years of age) administered with Abilify (20 mg to 30 mg), the body weight corrected aripiprazole clearance was similar to the adults.

Figure 4: Effects of intrinsic factors on aripiprazole pharmacokinetics

Effects of intrinsic factors on aripiprazole pharmacokinetics - Illustration

Figure 5: Effects of intrinsic factors on dehydro-aripiprazole pharmacokinetics

Effects of intrinsic factors on dehydro-aripiprazole pharmacokinetics - Illustration

Intramuscular Administration

In two pharmacokinetic studies of aripiprazole injection administered intramuscularly to healthy subjects, the median times to the peak plasma concentrations were at 1 hour and 3 hours. A 5 mg intramuscular injection of aripiprazole had an absolute bioavailability of 100%. The geometric mean maximum concentration achieved after an intramuscular dose was on average 19% higher than the Cmax of the oral tablet. While the systemic exposure over 24 hours was generally similar between aripiprazole injection given intramuscularly and after oral tablet administration, the aripiprazole AUC in the first 2 hours after an intramuscular injection was 90% greater than the AUC after the same dose as a tablet. In stable patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole after intramuscular administration were linear over a dose range of 1 mg to 45 mg. Although the metabolism of aripiprazole injection was not systematically evaluated, the intramuscular route of administration would not be expected to alter the metabolic pathways.

Animal Toxicology And/Or Pharmacology

Aripiprazole produced retinal degeneration in albino rats in a 26-week chronic toxicity study at a dose of 60 mg/kg and in a 2-year carcinogenicity study at doses of 40 and 60 mg/kg.The 40 and 60 mg/kg/day doses are 13 and 19 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) based on mg/m² and 7 to 14 times human exposure at MRHD based on AUC. Evaluation of the retinas of albino mice and of monkeys did not reveal evidence of retinal degeneration. Additional studies to further evaluate the mechanism have not been performed. The relevance of this finding to human risk is unknown.

Clinical Studies

Efficacy of the oral formulations of ABILIFY (aripiprazole) was established in the following adequate and well-controlled trials:

  • Four short-term trials and one maintenance trial in adult patients and one short-term trial in adolescents (ages 13-17) with schizophrenia
  • Four short-term monotherapy trials and one 6-week adjunctive trial in adult patients and one short-term monotherapy trial in pediatric patients (ages 10-17) with manic or mixed episodes
  • One maintenance monotherapy trial and in one maintenance adjunctive trial in adult patients with bipolar I disorder
  • Two short-term trials in adult patients with MDD who had an inadequate response to antidepressant therapy during the current episod
  • Two short-term trials in pediatric patients (ages 6-17 years) for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder
  • Two short-term trials in pediatric patients (ages 6-18 years) with Tourette's disorder

Efficacy of the injectable formulation of ABILIFY (aripiprazole) was established in the following adequate and well-controlled trials:

  • Three 24-hour trials in agitated adult patients with schizophrenia or manic/mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder

Schizophrenia

Adults

The efficacy of ABILIFY in the treatment of schizophrenia was evaluated in five short-term (4-week and 6-week), placebo-controlled trials of acutely relapsed inpatients who predominantly met DSM-III/IV criteria for schizophrenia. Four of the five trials were able to distinguish ABILIFY from placebo, but one study, the smallest, did not. Three of these studies also included an active control group consisting of either risperidone (one trial) or haloperidol (two trials), but they were not designed to allow for a comparison of ABILIFY and the active comparators.

In the four positive trials for ABILIFY, four primary measures were used for assessing psychiatric signs and symptoms. Efficacy was evaluated using the total score on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The PANSS is a 30 item scale that measures positive symptoms of schizophrenia (7 items), negative symptoms of schizophrenia (7 items), and general psychopathology (16 items), each rated on a scale of 1 (absent) to 7 (extreme); total PANSS scores range from 30 to 210. The Clinical Global Impression (CGI) assessment reflects the impression of a skilled observer, fully familiar with the manifestations of schizophrenia, about the overall clinical state of the patient.

In a 4-week trial (n=414) comparing two fixed doses of ABILIFY (15 or 30 mg/day) to placebo, both doses of ABILIFY were superior to placebo in the PANSS total score (Study 1 in Table 26), PANSS positive subscale, and CGI-severity score. In addition, the 15 mg dose was superior to placebo in the PANSS negative subscale.

In a 4-week trial (n=404) comparing two fixed doses of ABILIFY (20 or 30 mg/day) to placebo, both doses of ABILIFY were superior to placebo in the PANSS total score (Study 2 in Table 26), PANSS positive subscale, PANSS negative subscale, and CGI-severity score.

In a 6-week trial (n=420) comparing three fixed doses of ABILIFY (10, 15, or 20 mg/day) to placebo, all three doses of ABILIFY were superior to placebo in the PANSS total score (Study 3 in Table 26), PANSS positive subscale, and the PANSS negative subscale.

In a 6-week trial (n=367) comparing three fixed doses of ABILIFY (2, 5, or 10 mg/day) to placebo, the 10 mg dose of ABILIFY was superior to placebo in the PANSS total score (Study 4 in Table 26), the primary outcome measure of the study. The 2 and 5 mg doses did not demonstrate superiority to placebo on the primary outcome measure.

Thus, the efficacy of 10, 15, 20, and 30 mg daily doses was established in two studies for each dose. Among these doses, there was no evidence that the higher dose groups offered any advantage over the lowest dose group of these studies.

An examination of population subgroups did not reveal any clear evidence of differential responsiveness on the basis of age, gender, or race.

A longer-term trial enrolled 310 inpatients or outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia who were, by history, symptomatically stable on other antipsychotic medications for periods of 3 months or longer. These patients were discontinued from their antipsychotic medications and randomized to ABILIFY 15 mg/day or placebo for up to 26 weeks of observation for relapse. Relapse during the double-blind phase was defined as CGI-Improvement score of ≥ 5 (minimally worse), scores ≥ 5 (moderately severe) on the hostility or uncooperativeness items of the PANSS, or ≥ 20% increase in the PANSS total score. Patients receiving ABILIFY 15 mg/day experienced a significantly longer time to relapse over the subsequent 26 weeks compared to those receiving placebo (Study 5 in Figure 6).

Pediatric Patients

The efficacy of ABILIFY (aripiprazole) in the treatment of schizophrenia in pediatric patients (13 to 17 years of age) was evaluated in one 6-week, placebo-controlled trial of outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and had a PANSS score ≥ 70 at baseline. In this trial (n=302) comparing two fixed doses of ABILIFY (10 or 30 mg/day) to placebo, ABILIFY was titrated starting from 2 mg/day to the target dose in 5 days in the 10 mg/day treatment arm and in 11 days in the 30 mg/day treatment arm. Both doses of ABILIFY were superior to placebo in the PANSS total score (Study 6 in Table 26), the primary outcome measure of the study. The 30 mg/day dosage was not shown to be more efficacious than the 10 mg/daydose. Although maintenance efficacy in pediatric patients has not been systematically evaluated, maintenance efficacy can be extrapolated from adult data along with comparisons of aripiprazole pharmacokinetic parameters in adult and pediatric patients.

Table 26: Schizophrenia Studies

Study Number Treatment Group Primary Efficacy Measure: PANSS
Mean Baseline Score (SD) LS Mean Change from Baseline (SE) Placebo-subtracted Difference3 (95% CI)
Study 1 ABILIFY (15 mg/day)* 98.5 (17.2) -15.5 (2.40) -12.6 (-18.9, -6.2)
ABILIFY (30 mg/day)* 99.0 (19.2) -11.4 (2.39) -8.5 (-14.8, -2.1)
Placebo 100.2(16.5) -2.9(2.36)
Study 2 ABILIFY (20 mg/day)* 92.6 (19.5) -14.5 (2.23) -9.6 (-15.4, -3.8)
ABILIFY (30 mg/day)* 94.2 (18.5) -13.9 (2.24) -9.0 (-14.8, -3.1)
Placebo 94.3(18.5) -5.0(2.17)
Study 3 ABILIFY (10 mg/day)* 92.7 (19.5) -15.0 (2.38) -12.7 (-19.00, -6.41)
ABILIFY (15 mg/day)* 93.2 (21.6) -11.7 (2.38) -9.4 (-15.71, -3.08)
ABILIFY (20 mg/day)* 92.5 (20.9) -14.4 (2.45) -12.1 (-18.53, -5.68)
Placebo 92.3(21.8) -2.3(2.35)
Study 4 ABILIFY (2 mg/day) 90.7 (14.5) -8.2 (1.90) -2.9 (-8.29, 2.47)
ABILIFY (5 mg/day) 92.0 (12.6) -10.6 (1.93) -5.2 (-10.7, 0.19)
ABILIFY (10 mg/day)* 90.0 (11.9) -11.3 (1.88) -5.9 (-11.3, -0.58)
Placebo 90.8(13.3) -5.3(1.97)
Study 6 (Pediatric, 13-17 years) ABILIFY (10 mg/day)* 93.6 (15.7) -26.7 (1.91) -5.5 (-10.7, -0.21)
ABILIFY (30 mg/day)* 94.0 (16.1) -28.6 (1.92) -7.4 (-12.7, -2.13)
Placebo 94.6(15.6) -21.2(1.93)
SD: standard deviation; SE: standard error; LS Mean: least-squares mean; CI: unadjusted confidence interval.
a Difference (drug minus placebo) in least-squares mean change from baseline.
* Doses statistically significantly superior to placebo.

Figure 6: Kaplan-Meier Estimation of Cumulative Proportion of Patients with Relapse (Schizophrenia Study 5)

Kaplan-Meier Estimation of Cumulative Proportion of Patients with Relapse - Illustration

Bipolar Disorder

Acute Treatment of Manic and Mixed Episodes

Adults

Monotherapy

The efficacy of ABILIFY as monotherapy in the acute treatment of manic episodes was established in four 3-week, placebo-controlled trials in hospitalized patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder with manic or mixed episodes. These studies included patients with or without psychotic features and two of the studies also included patients with or without a rapid-cycling course.

The primary instrument used for assessing manic symptoms was the Young Mania Rating Scale (Y-MRS), an 11-item clinician-rated scale traditionally used to assess the degree of manic symptomatology in a range from 0 (no manic features) to 60 (maximum score). A key secondary instrument included the Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar (CGI-BP) Scale.

In the four positive, 3-week, placebo-controlled trials (n=268; n=248; n=480; n=485) which evaluated ABILIFY in a range of 15 mg to 30 mg, once daily (with a starting dose of 30 mg/day in two studies and 15 mg/day in two studies), ABILIFY was superior to placebo in the reduction of Y-MRS total score (Studies 1-4 in Table 27) and CGI-BP Severity of Illness score (mania). In the two studies with a starting dose of 15 mg/day, 48% and 44% of patients were on 15 mg/day at endpoint. In the two studies with a starting dose of 30 mg/day, 86% and 85% of patients were on 30 mg/day at endpoint.

Adjunctive Therapy

The efficacy of adjunctive ABILIFY with concomitant lithium or valproate in the treatment of manic or mixed episodes was established in a 6-week, placebo-controlled study (n=384) with a 2-week lead-in mood stabilizer monotherapy phase in adult patients who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder. This study included patients with manic or mixed episodes and with or without psychotic features.

Patients were initiated on open-label lithium (0.6 to 1.0 mEq/L) or valproate (50 to 125 μg/mL) at therapeutic serum levels, and remained on stable doses for 2 weeks. At the end of 2 weeks, patients demonstrating inadequate response (Y-MRS total score ≥ 16 and ≤ 25% improvement on the Y-MRS total score) to lithium or valproate were randomized to receive either ABILIFY (15 mg/day or an increase to 30 mg/day as early as day 7) or placebo as adjunctive therapy with open-label lithium or valproate. In the 6-week, placebo-controlled phase, adjunctive ABILIFY starting at 15 mg/day with concomitant lithium or valproate (in a therapeutic range of 0.6 to 1.0 mEq/L or 50 to 125 μg/mL, respectively) was superior to lithium or valproate with adjunctive placebo in the reduction of the Y-MRS total score (Study 5 in Table 27) and CGI-BP Severity of Illness score (mania). Seventy-one percent of the patients coadministered valproate and 62% of the patients coadministered lithium were on 15 mg/day at 6-week endpoint.

Pediatric Patients

The efficacy of ABILIFY in the treatment of bipolar I disorder in pediatric patients (10 to 17 years of age) was evaluated in one 4-week, placebo-controlled trial (n=296) of outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder manic or mixed episodes with or without psychotic features and had a Y-MRS score ≥ 20 at baseline. This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial compared two fixed doses of ABILIFY (10 or 30 mg/day) to placebo. The ABILIFY dose was started at 2 mg/day, which was titrated to 5 mg/day after 2 days, and to the target dose in 5 days in the 10 mg/day treatment arm, and in 13 days in the 30 mg/day treatment arm. Both doses of ABILIFY were superior to placebo in change from baseline to week 4 on the Y-MRS total score (Study 6 in Table 27).

Table 27: Bipolar Studies

Study Number Treatment Group Primary Efficacy Measure: Y-MRS
Mean Baseline Score (SD) LS Mean Change from Baseline (SE) Placebo-subtracted Differencea (95% CI)
Study 1 ABILIFY (30/15 mg/day)* 29.0 (5.9) -12.52 (1.05) -5.33 (-7.90, -2.76)
Placebo 28.5 (4.6) -7.19 (1.07) --
Study 2 ABILIFY (30/15 mg/day)* 27.8 (5.7) -8.15 (1.23) -4.80 (-7.80, -1.80)
Placebo 29.1 (6.9) -3.35 (1.22) --
Study 3 ABILIFY (15-30 mg/day)* 28.5 (5.6) -12.64 (0.84) -3.63 (-5.75 , -1.51)
Placebo 28.9 (5.9) 9.01 (0.81) --
Study 4 ABILIFY (15-30 mg/day)* 28.0 (5.8) -11.98 (0.80) -2.28 (-4.44 , -0.11)
Placebo 28.3 (5.8) -9.70 (0.83) --
Study 5 ABILIFY (15 or 30 mg/day)* + Lithium/Valproate 23.2 (5.7) -13.31 (0.50) -2.62 (-4.29 , -0.95)
Placebo + Lithium/ Valproate 23.0 (4.9) -10.70 (0.69) --
Study 6 (Pediatric, 10-17 years) ABILIFY (10 mg/day)* 29.8 (6.5) -14.2 (0.89) -5.99 (-8.49, -3.50)
ABILIFY (30 mg/day)* 29.5 (6.3) -16.5 (0.87) -8.26 (-10.7, -5.77)
Placebo 30.7 (6.8) -8.2 (0.91) --
SD: standard deviation; SE: standard error; LS Mean: least-squares mean; CI: unadjusted confidence interval.
a Difference (drug minus placebo) in least-squares mean change from baseline.
* Doses statistically significantly superior to placebo.

Maintenance Treatment of Bipolar I Disorder

Monotherapy Maintenance Therapy

A maintenance trial was conducted in adult patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder with a recent manic or mixed episode who had been stabilized on open-label ABILIFY and who had maintained a clinical response for at least 6 weeks. The first phase of this trial was an open-label stabilization period in which inpatients and outpatients were clinically stabilized and then maintained on open-label ABILIFY (15 or 30 mg/day, with a starting dose of 30 mg/day) for at least 6 consecutive weeks. One hundred sixty-one outpatients were then randomized in a double-blind fashion, to either the same dose of ABILIFY they were on at the end of the stabilization and maintenance period or placebo and were then monitored for manic or depressive relapse. During the randomization phase, ABILIFY was superior to placebo on time to the number of combined affective relapses (manic plus depressive), the primary outcome measure for this study (Study 7 in Figure 7). A total of 55 mood events were observed during the double-blind treatment phase. Nineteen were from the ABILIFY group and 36 were from the placebo group. The number of observed manic episodes in the ABILIFY group (6) were fewer than that in the placebo group (19), while the number of depressive episodes in the ABILIFY group (9) was similar to that in the placebo group (11).

An examination of population subgroups did not reveal any clear evidence of differential responsiveness on the basis of age and gender; however, there were insufficient numbers of patients in each of the ethnic groups to adequately assess inter-group differences.

Figure 7: Kaplan-Meier Estimation of Cumulative Proportion of Patients with Relapse (Bipolar Study 7)

Kaplan-Meier Estimation of Cumulative Proportion of Patients with Relapse - Illustration

Adjunctive Maintenance Therapy

An adjunctive maintenance trial was conducted in adult patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder with a recent manic or mixed episode. Patients were initiated on open-label lithium (0.6 to 1.0 mEq/L) or valproate (50 to 125 μg/mL) at therapeutic serum levels, and remained on stable doses for 2 weeks. At the end of 2 weeks, patients demonstrating inadequate response (Y-MRS total score ≥ 16 and ≤ 35% improvement on the Y-MRS total score) to lithium or valproate received ABILIFY with a starting dose of 15 mg/day with the option to increase to 30 mg or reduce to 10 mg as early as day 4, as adjunctive therapy with open-label lithium or valproate. Prior to randomization, patients on the combination of single-blind ABILIFY and lithium or valproate were required to maintain stability (Y-MRS and MADRS total scores ≤ 12) for 12 consecutive weeks. Three hundred thirty-seven patients were then randomized in a double-blind fashion, to either the same dose of ABILIFY they were on at the end of the stabilization period or placebo plus lithium or valproate and were then monitored for manic, mixed, or depressive relapse for a maximum of 52 weeks. ABILIFY was superior to placebo on the primary endpoint, time from randomization to relapse to any mood event (Study 8 in Figure 8). A mood event was defined as hospitalization for a manic, mixed, or depressive episode, study discontinuation due to lack of efficacy accompanied by Y-MRS score > 16 and/or a MADRS > 16, or an SAE of worsening disease accompanied by Y-MRS score > 16 and/or a MADRS > 16. A total of 68 mood events were observed during the double-blind treatment phase. Twenty-five were from the ABILIFY group and 43 were from the placebo group. The number of observed manic episodes in the ABILIFY group (7) were fewer than that in the placebo group (19), while the number of depressive episodes in the ABILIFY group (14) was similar to that in the placebo group (18). The Kaplan-Meier curves of the time from randomization to relapse to any mood event during the 52-week, double-blind treatment phase for ABILIFY and placebo groups are shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8: Kaplan-Meier Estimation of Cumulative Proportion of Patients with Relapse to Any Mood Event (Bipolar Study 8)

Kaplan-Meier Estimation of Cumulative Proportion of Patients with Relapse to Any Mood Event - Illustration

An examination of population subgroups did not reveal any clear evidence of differential responsiveness on the basis of age and gender; however, there were insufficient numbers of patients in each of the ethnic groups to adequately assess inter-group differences.

Adjunctive Treatment Of Major Depressive Disorder

Adults

The efficacy of ABILIFY in the adjunctive treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) was demonstrated in two short-term (6-week), placebo-controlled trials of adult patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for MDD who had had an inadequate response to prior antidepressant therapy (1 to 3 courses) in the current episode and who had also demonstrated an inadequate response to 8 weeks of prospective antidepressant therapy (paroxetine controlled-release, venlafaxine extended-release, fluoxetine, escitalopram, or sertraline). Inadequate response for prospective treatment was defined as less than 50% improvement on the 17-item version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17), minimal HAMD17 score of 14, and a Clinical Global Impressions Improvement rating of no better than minimal improvement. Inadequate response to prior treatment was defined as less than 50% improvement as perceived by the patient after a minimum of 6 weeks of antidepressant therapy at or above the minimal effective dose.

The primary instrument used for assessing depressive symptoms was the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), a 10-item clinician-rated scale used to assess the degree of depressive symptomatology. The key secondary instrument was the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), a 3-item self-rated instrument used to assess the impact of depression on three domains of functioning with each item scored from 0 (not at all) to 10 (extreme).

In the two trials (n=381, n=362), ABILIFY was superior to placebo in reducing mean MADRS total scores (Studies 1, 2 in Table 28). In one study, ABILIFY was also superior to placebo in reducing the mean SDS score.

In both trials, patients received ABILIFY adjunctive to antidepressants at a dose of 5 mg/day. Based on tolerability and efficacy, doses could be adjusted by 5 mg increments, one week apart. Allowable doses were: 2, 5, 10, 15 mg/day, and for patients who were not on potent CYP2D6 inhibitors fluoxetine and paroxetine, 20 mg/day. The mean final dose at the end point for the two trials was 10.7 and 11.4 mg/day.

An examination of population subgroups did not reveal evidence of differential response based on age, choice of prospective antidepressant, or race. With regard to gender, a smaller mean reduction on the MADRS total score was seen in males than in females.

Table 28: Adjunctive Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder Studies

Study Number Treatment Group Primary Efficacy Measure: MADRS
Mean Baseline Score (SD) LS Mean Change from Baseline (SE) Placebo-subtracted Differencea (95% CI)
Study 1 ABILIFY (5-20 mg/day)*+ Antidepressant 25.2(6.2) -8.49(0.66) -2.84 (-4.53, -1.15)
Placebo +Antidepressant 27.0(5.5) -5.65(0.64)
Study 2 ABILIFY (5-20 mg/day)*+ Antidepressant 26.0(6.0) -8.78(0.63) -3.01 (-4.66, -1.37)
Placebo +Antidepressant 26.0(6.5) -5.77(0.67)
SD: standard deviation; SE: standard error; LS Mean: least-squares mean; CI: unadjusted confidence interval.
a Difference (drug minus placebo) in least-squares mean change from baseline.
* Doses statistically significantly superior to placebo.

Irritability Associated With Autistic Disorder

Pediatric Patients

The efficacy of ABILIFY (aripiprazole) in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder was established in two 8-week, placebo-controlled trials in pediatric patients (6 to 17 years of age) who met the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder and demonstrated behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a combination of these problems. Over 75% of these subjects were under 13 years of age.

Efficacy was evaluated using two assessment scales: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. The primary outcome measure in both trials was the change from baseline to endpoint in the Irritability subscale of the ABC (ABC-I). The ABC-I subscale measured symptoms of irritability in autistic disorder.

The results of these trials are as follows:

In one of the 8-week, placebo-controlled trials, children and adolescents with autistic disorder (n=98), aged 6 to 17 years, received daily doses of placebo or ABILIFY 2 to 15 mg/day. ABILIFY, starting at 2 mg/day with increases allowed up to 15 mg/day based on clinical response, significantly improved scores on the ABC-I subscale and on the CGI-I scale compared with placebo. The mean daily dose of ABILIFY at the end of 8-week treatment was 8.6 mg/day (Study 1 in Table 29).

In the other 8-week, placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescents with autistic disorder (n=218), aged 6 to 17 years, three fixed doses of ABILIFY (5, 10, or 15 mg/day) were compared to placebo. ABILIFY dosing started at 2 mg/day and was increased to 5 mg/day after one week. After a second week, it was increased to 10 mg/day for patients in the 10 and 15 mg dose arms, and after a third week, it was increased to 15 mg/day in the 15 mg/day treatment arm (Study 2 in Table 29). All three doses of ABILIFY significantly improved scores on the ABC-I subscale compared with placebo.

Table 29: Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder Studies (Pediatric)

Study Number Treatment Group Primary Efficacy Measure: ABC-I
Mean Baseline Score (SD) LS Mean Change from Baseline (SE) Placebo-subtracted Differencea (95% CI)
Study 1 ABILIFY (2-15 mg/day)* 29.6 (6.37) -12.9 (1.44) -7.9 (-11.7, -4.1)
Placebo 30.2 (6.52) -5.0 (1.43) --
Study 2 ABILIFY (5 mg/day)* 28.6 (7.56) -12.4 (1.36) -4.0 (-7.7, -0.4)
ABILIFY (10 mg/day)* 28.2 (7.36) -13.2 (1.25) -4.8 (-8.4, -1.3)
ABILIFY (15 mg/day)* 28.9 (6.41) -14.4 (1.31) -6.0 (-9.6, -2.3)
Placebo 28.0(6.89) -8.4(1.39)
SD: standard deviation; SE: standard error; LS Mean: least-squares mean; CI: unadjusted confidence interval.
a Difference (drug minus placebo) in least-squares mean change from baseline.
* Doses statistically significantly superior to placebo.

Tourette's Disorder

Pediatric Patients

The efficacy of ABILIFY (aripiprazole) in the treatment of Tourette's disorder was established in one 8-week (7 to 17 years of age) and one 10-week (6 to 18 years of age), placebo-controlled trials in pediatric patients (6 to 18 years of age) who met the DSM-IV criteria for Tourette's disorder and had a Total Tic score (TTS) ≥ 20 - 22 on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). The YGTSS is a fully validated scale designed to measure current tic severity. Efficacy was evaluated using two assessment scales: 1) the Total Tic score (TTS) of the YGTSS and 2) the Clinical Global Impressions Scale for Tourette's Syndrome (CGI-TS), a clinician-determined summary measure that takes into account all available patient information. Over 65% of these patients were under 13 years of age.

The primary outcome measure in both trials was the change from baseline to endpoint in the TTS of the YGTSS. Ratings for the TTS are made along 5 different dimensions on a scale of 0 to 5 for motor and vocal tics each. Summation of these 10 scores provides a TTS (i.e., 0-50).

The results of these trials are as follows:

In the 8-week, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trial, children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder (n=133), aged 7 to 17 years, were randomized 1:1:1 to low dose ABILIFY, high dose ABILIFY, or placebo. The target doses for the low and high dose ABILIFY groups were based on weight. Patients < 50 kg in the low dose ABILIFY group started at 2 mg per day with a target dose of 5 mg per day after 2 days. Patients ≥ 50 kg in the low dose ABILIFY group, started at 2 mg per day increased to 5 mg per day after 2 days, with a subsequent increase to a target dose of 10 mg per day at day 7. Patients < 50 kg in the high dose ABILIFY group started at 2 mg per day increased to 5 mg per day after 2 days, with a subsequent increase to a target dose of 10 mg per day at day 7. Patients ≥ 50 kg in the high dose ABILIFY group, started at 2 mg per day increased to 5 mg per day after 2 days, with a subsequent increase to a dose of 10 mg per day at day 7 and were allowed weekly increases of 5 mg per day up to a target dose 20 mg per day at Day 21. ABILIFY (both high and low dose groups) demonstrated statistically significantly improved scores on the YGTSS TTS (Study 1 in Table 30) and on the CGI-TS scale compared with placebo. The estimated improvements on the YGTSS TTS over the course of the study are displayed in Figure 9.

Figure 9: Least Square Means of Change from Baseline in YGTSS TTS by Week (Tourette's Disorder Study 1)

Least Square Means of Change from Baseline - Illustration

In the 10-week, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose trial in children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder (n=61), aged 6 to 18 years, patients received daily doses of placebo or ABILIFY, starting at 2 mg/day with increases allowed up to 20 mg/day based on clinical response. ABILIFY demonstrated statistically significantly improved scores on the YGTSS TTS scale compared with placebo (Study 2 in Table 30). The mean daily dose of ABILIFY at the end of 10-week treatment was 6.54 mg/day.

Table 30: Tourette's Disorder Studies (Pediatric)

Study Number Treatment Group Primary Efficacy Measure: YGTSS TTS
Mean Baseline Score (SD) LS Mean Change from Baseline (SE) Placebo-subtracted Differencea (95% CI)
Study 1 ABILIFY (low dose)* 29.2 (5.63) -13.4 (1.59) -6.3 (-10.2, -2.3)
ABILIFY (high dose)* 31.2 (6.40) -16.9 (1.61) -9.9 (-13.8, -5.9)
Placebo 30.7 (5.95) -7.1 (1.55) --
Study 2 ABILIFY (2-20 mg/day)* 28.3 (5.51) -15.0 (1.51) -5.3 (-9.8, -0.9)
Placebo 29.5 (5.60) -9.6 (1.64) --
SD: standard deviation; SE: standard error; LS Mean: least-squares mean; CI: unadjusted confidence interval.
a Difference (drug minus placebo) in least-squares mean change from baseline.
* Doses statistically significantly superior to placebo.

Agitation Associated With Schizophrenia Or Bipolar Mania

The efficacy of intramuscular ABILIFY for injection for the treatment of agitation was established in three short-term (24-hour), placebo-controlled trials in agitated inpatients from two diagnostic groups: schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes, with or without psychotic features). Each of the trials included a single active comparator treatment arm of either haloperidol injection (schizophrenia studies) or lorazepam injection (bipolar mania study). Patients could receive up to three injections during the 24-hour treatment periods; however, patients could not receive the second injection until after the initial 2-hour period when the primary efficacy measure was assessed. Patients enrolled in the trials needed to be: (1) judged by the clinical investigators as clinically agitated and clinically appropriate candidates for treatment with intramuscular medication, and (2) exhibiting a level of agitation that met or exceeded a threshold score of ≥ 15 on the five items comprising the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Excited Component (i.e., poor impulse control, tension, hostility, uncooperativeness, and excitement items) with at least two individual item scores ≥ 4 using a 1-7 scoring system (1 = absent, 4 = moderate, 7 = extreme). In the studies, the mean baseline PANSS Excited Component score was 19, with scores ranging from 15 to 34 (out of a maximum score of 35), thus suggesting predominantly moderate levels of agitation with some patients experiencing mild or severe levels of agitation. The primary efficacy measure used for assessing agitation signs and symptoms in these trials was the change from baseline in the PANSS Excited Component at 2 hours post-injection. A key secondary measure was the Clinical

Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) Scale. The results of the trials follow:

In a placebo-controlled trial in agitated inpatients predominantly meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia (n=350), four fixed ABILIFY injection doses of 1 mg, 5.25 mg, 9.75 mg, and 15 mg were evaluated. At 2 hours post-injection, the 5.25 mg, 9.75 mg, and 15 mg doses were statistically superior to placebo in the PANSS Excited Component (Study 1 in Table 31) and on the CGI-I Scale.

In a second placebo-controlled trial in agitated inpatients predominantly meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia (n=445), one fixed ABILIFY injection dose of 9.75 mg was evaluated. At 2 hours post-injection, ABILIFY for injection was statistically superior to placebo in the PANSS Excited Component (Study 2 in Table 31) and on the CGI-I Scale.

In a placebo-controlled trial in agitated inpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed) (n=291), two fixed ABILIFY injection doses of 9.75 mg and 15 mg were evaluated. At 2 hours post-injection, both doses were statistically superior to placebo in the PANSS Excited Component (Study 3 in Table 31).

Examination of population subsets (age, race, and gender) did not reveal any differential responsiveness on the basis of these subgroupings.

Table 31: Agitation Associated with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Mania Studies

Study Group Treatment Number Primary Efficacy Measure: PANSS Excited Component
Mean Baseline Score (SD) LS Mean Change from Baseline (SE) Placebo- subtracted Differencea (95% CI)
Agitation Associated with Schizophrenia
Study 1 ABILIFY (1 mg) 19.16 (3.26) -4.47 (0.72) -1.19 (-2.96 , 0.59)
ABILIFY (5.25 mg)* 19.41 (3.31) -5.65 (0.68) -2.37 (-4.10 , -0.63)
ABILIFY (9.75 mg)* 19.42 (2.80) -6.69 (0.72) -3.40 (-5.18 , -1.62)
ABILIFY (15 mg)* 19.34 (2.38) -5.72 (0.72) -2.44 (-4.21 , -0.68)
Placebo 19.18 (2.95) -3.28 (0.70) --
Study 2 ABILIFY (9.75 mg)* 18.82 (2.67) -7.27 (0.59) -2.48 (-3.77, -1.19)
Placebo 18.74 (2.71) -4.78 (0.69) --
Agitation Associated with Bipolar Mania
Study 3 ABILIFY (9.75 mg)* 18.77 (2.45) -8.74 (0.57) -2.99 (-4.53, -1.44)
ABILIFY (15 mg)* 18.29 (2.49) -8.67 (0.57) -2.91 (-4.44, -1.38)
Placebo 17.95 (2.63) -5.76 (0.58) --
SD: standard deviation; SE: standard error; LS Mean: least-squares mean; CI: unadjusted confidence interval.
a Difference (drug minus placebo) in least-squares mean change from baseline.
* Doses statistically significantly superior to placebo.

Last reviewed on RxList: 8/20/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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