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Increased Mortality In Elderly Patients With Dementia-Related Psychosis
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of 17 placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group.
Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. ABILIFY MAINTENA is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.
Cerebrovascular Adverse Reactions, Including Stroke In Elderly Patients With Dementia-Related Psychosis
In placebo-controlled clinical studies (two flexible dose and one fixed dose study) of dementia-related psychosis, there was an increased incidence of cerebrovascular adverse reactions (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatalities, in oral aripiprazole-treated patients (mean age: 84 years; range: 78-88 years). In the fixed-dose study, there was a statistically significant dose response relationship for cerebrovascular adverse reactions in patients treated with oral aripiprazole. ABILIFY MAINTENA is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) may occur with administration of antipsychotic drugs, including ABILIFY MAINTENA. Rare cases of NMS occurred during aripiprazole treatment in the worldwide clinical database.
Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure.
The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to exclude cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever, and primary central nervous system pathology.
The management of NMS should include: 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy; 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring; and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for uncomplicated NMS.
If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported.
A syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.
The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief treatment periods at low doses.
There is no known treatment for established tardive dyskinesia, although the syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is withdrawn. Antipsychotic treatment, itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome and, thereby, may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect of symptomatic suppression on the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown.
Given these considerations, ABILIFY MAINTENA should be prescribed in a manner that is most likely to minimize the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. Chronic antipsychotic treatment should generally be reserved for patients who suffer from a chronic illness that 1) is known to respond to antipsychotic drugs and 2) for whom alternative, equally effective, but potentially less harmful treatments are not available or appropriate. In patients who do require chronic treatment, the smallest dose and the shortest duration of treatment producing a satisfactory clinical response should be sought. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically.
If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient treated with ABILIFY MAINTENA drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment with ABILIFY MAINTENA despite the presence of the syndrome.
Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes that include hyperglycemia/diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and weight gain. While all drugs in the class have been shown to produce some metabolic changes, each drug has its own specific risk profile.
Hyperglycemia, in some cases extreme and associated with diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar coma, or death, has been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. There have been reports of hyperglycemia in patients treated with aripiprazole [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Assessment of the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and glucose abnormalities is complicated by the possibility of an increased background risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia and the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the general population. Given these confounders, the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and hyperglycemia-related adverse reactions is not completely understood. However, epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of hyperglycemia-related adverse reactions in patients treated with the atypical antipsychotics.
Patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus who are started on atypical antipsychotics should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients with risk factors for diabetes mellitus (e.g., obesity, family history of diabetes), who are starting treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment and periodically during treatment. Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when the atypical antipsychotic was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of anti-diabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the atypical antipsychotic drug.
In a short-term, placebo-controlled randomized trial in adults with schizophrenia, the mean change in fasting glucose was +9.8 mg/dL (N=88) in the ABILIFY MAINTENA-treated patients and +0.7 mg/dL (N=59) in the placebo-treated patients. Table 4 shows the proportion of ABILIFY MAINTENA-treated patients with normal and borderline fasting glucose at baseline and their changes in fasting glucose measurements.
Table 4: Proportion of
Patients with Potential Clinically Relevant Changes in Fasting Glucose from a
12-Week Placebo-Controlled Monotherapy Trial in Adult Patients with
|Category Change (at least once) from Baseline||Treatment Arm||n/Na||%|
|Fasting Glucose||Normal to High
( < 100 mg/dL to ≥ 126 mg/dL)
|Borderline to High
( ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 126 mg/dL
to ≥ 126 mg/dL)
|a N = the total number of subjects who had a measurement at
baseline and at least one post-baseline result.
n = the number of subjects with a potentially clinically relevant shift.
Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.
Table 5 shows the proportion of adult patients from one short-term, placebo-controlled randomized trial in adults with schizophrenia taking ABILIFY MAINTENA, with changes in total cholesterol, fasting triglycerides, fasting LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol.
Table 5: Proportion of
Patients with Potential Clinically Relevant Changes in Blood Lipid Parameters
From a 12-Week Placebo-Controlled Monotherapy Trial in Adults with
Normal to High
( < 200 mg/dL to ≥ 240 mg/dL)
|Borderline to High
(200~ < 240 mg/dL to ≥ 240 mg/dL)
( ≥ 40 mg/dL)
Normal to High
( < 150 mg/dL to ≥ 200 mg/dL)
|Borderline to High
(150~ < 200 mg/dL to ≥ 200 mg/dL)
( ≥ 50 mg/dL)
|Fasting LDL Cholesterol
Normal to High
( < 100 mg/dL to ≥ 160 mg/dL)
|Borderline to High
(100~ < 160 mg/dL to ≥ 160 mg/dL)
( ≥ 30 mg/dL)
Normal to Low
( ≥ 40 mg/dL to < 40 mg/dL)
( ≥ 20 mg/dL)
|a N = the total number of subjects who had a measurement at
baseline and at least one post-baseline result.
n = the number of subjects with a potentially clinically relevant shift.
Weight gain has been observed with atypical antipsychotic use. Clinical monitoring of weight is recommended.
In one short-term, placebo-controlled trial with ABILIFY MAINTENA, the mean change in body weight at Week 12 was +3.5 kg (N=99) in the ABILIFY MAINTENA-treated patients and +0.8 kg (N=66) in the placebo-treated patients.
Table 6 shows the percentage of adult patients with weight gain ≥ 7% of body weight in a short-term, placebo-controlled trial with ABILIFY MAINTENA.
Table 6: Percentage of
Patients From a 12-Week Placebo-Controlled Trial in Adult Patients with
Schizophrenia with Weight Gain ≥ 7% of Body Weight
|Treatment Arm||Na||Patients n (%)|
|Weight gain ≥ 7% of||ABILIFY MAINTENA||144||31 (21.5)|
|body weight||Placebo||141||12 (8.5)|
|a N = the total number of subjects who had a measurement at baseline and at least one post-baseline result.|
ABILIFY MAINTENA may cause orthostatic hypotension, perhaps due to its α1-adrenergic receptor antagonism. In the short-term, placebo-controlled trial in adults with schizophrenia, the adverse event of presyncope was reported in 1/167 (0.6%) of patients treated with ABILFY MAINTENA, while syncope and orthostatic hypotension were each reported in 1/172 (0.6%) of patients treated with placebo. During the stabilization phase of the randomized-withdrawal (maintenance) study, orthostasis-related adverse events were reported in 4/576 (0.7%) of patients treated with ABILIFY MAINTENA, including abnormal orthostatic blood pressure (1/576, 0.2%), postural dizziness (1/576, 0.2%), presyncope (1/576, 0.2%) and orthostatic hypotension (1/576, 0.2%).
In the short-term placebo-controlled trial, there were no patients in either treatment group with a significant orthostatic change in blood pressure (defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure ≥ 20 mmHg accompanied by an increase in heart rate ≥ 25 when comparing standing to supine values). During the stabilization phase of the randomized-withdrawal (maintenance) study, the incidence of significant orthostatic change in blood pressure was 0.2% (1/575).
Leukopenia, Neutropenia, And Agranulocytosis
In clinical trials and post-marketing experience, leukopenia and neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents, including ABILIFY MAINTENA. Agranulocytosis has also been reported [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC)/absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and a history of drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia. In patients with a history of a clinically significant low WBC/ANC or drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia, perform a complete blood count (CBC) frequently during the first few months of therapy. In such patients, consider discontinuation of ABILIFY MAINTENA at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors.
Monitor patients with clinically significant neutropenia for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treat promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Discontinue ABILIFY MAINTENA in patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count < 1000/mm³) and follow their WBC counts until recovery.
As with other antipsychotic drugs, use ABILIFY MAINTENA cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that lower the seizure threshold. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of 65 years or older.
Potential For Cognitive And Motor Impairment
ABILIFY MAINTENA, like other antipsychotics, may impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. Instruct patients to avoid operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that therapy with ABILIFY MAINTENA does not affect them adversely.
Body Temperature Regulation
Disruption of the body's ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Appropriate care is advised when prescribing ABILIFY MAINTENA for patients who will be experiencing conditions which may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature, (e.g., exercising strenuously, exposure to extreme heat, receiving concomitant medication with anticholinergic activity, or being subject to dehydration).
Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use, including ABILIFY MAINTENA. ABILIFY MAINTENA and other antipsychotic drugs should be used cautiously in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia [see Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis].
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (MEDICATION GUIDE)
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Counsel patients about a potentially fatal adverse reaction referred to as NMS that has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs. Advise patients, family members, or caregivers to contact a health care provider or report to the emergency room if they experience signs and symptoms of NMS [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients that abnormal involuntary movements have been associated with the administration of antipsychotic drugs. Counsel patients to notify their health care provider if they notice any movements which they cannot control in their face, tongue, or other body part [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Metabolic Changes (Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus, Dyslipidemia, and Weight Gain)
Educate patients about the risk of metabolic changes, how to recognize symptoms of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus, and the need for specific monitoring, including blood glucose, lipids, and weight [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Educate patients about the risk of orthostatic hypotension and syncope especially early in treatment, and also at times of re-initiating treatment or increases in dosage [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients with a pre-existing low WBC count or a history of drug-induced leucopenia/neutropenia that they should have their CBC monitored while receiving ABILIFY MAINTENA [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Interference with Cognitive and Motor Performance
Because ABILIFY MAINTENA may have the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, instruct patients to be cautious about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that ABILIFY MAINTENA therapy does not affect them adversely [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Heat Exposure and Dehydration
Advise patients regarding appropriate care in avoiding overheating and dehydration [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients to inform their health care providers of any changes to their current prescription or over-the-counter medications since there is a potential for clinically significant interactions [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Advise patients that ABILIFY MAINTENA may cause extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms in a neonate and to notify their healthcare provider with a known or suspected pregnancy. Advise patients that there is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to ABILIFY MAINTENA during pregnancy [see Use In Specific Populations].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Lifetime carcinogenicity studies were conducted in ICR mice, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, and F344 rats. Aripiprazole was administered for 2 years in the diet at doses of 1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day to ICR mice and 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg/day to F344 rats (0.2 to 5 times and 0.3 to 3 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] based on mg/m², respectively). In addition, SD rats were dosed orally for 2 years at 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg/day (3 to 19 times the MRHD based on mg/m²). Aripiprazole did not induce tumors in male mice or male rats. In female mice, the incidences of pituitary gland adenomas and mammary gland adenocarcinomas and adenoacanthomas were increased at dietary doses of 3 to 30 mg/kg/day (0.1 to 0.9 times human exposure at MRHD based on AUC and 0.5 to 5 times the MRHD based on mg/m²). In female rats, the incidence of mammary gland fibroadenomas was increased at a dietary dose of 10 mg/kg/day (0.1 times human exposure at MRHD based on AUC and 3 times the MRHD based on mg/m²); and the incidences of adrenocortical carcinomas and combined adrenocortical adenomas/carcinomas were increased at an oral dose of 60 mg/kg/day (14 times human exposure at MRHD based on AUC and 19 times the MRHD based on mg/m²).
Proliferative changes in the pituitary and mammary gland of rodents have been observed following chronic administration of other antipsychotic agents and are considered prolactin-mediated. Serum prolactin was not measured in the aripiprazole carcinogenicity studies. However, increases in serum prolactin levels were observed in female mice in a 13-week dietary study at the doses associated with mammary gland and pituitary tumors. Serum prolactin was not increased in female rats in 4-week and 13-week dietary studies at the dose associated with mammary gland tumors. The relevance for human risk of the findings of prolactin-mediated endocrine tumors in rodents is unknown.
The mutagenic potential of aripiprazole was tested in the in vitro bacterial reverse-mutation assay, the in vitro bacterial DNA repair assay, the in vitro forward gene mutation assay in mouse lymphoma cells, the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, the in vivo micronucleus assay in mice, and the unscheduled DNA synthesis assay in rats. Aripiprazole and a metabolite (2,3-DCPP) were clastogenic in the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in CHL cells with and without metabolic activation. The metabolite, 2,3-DCPP, produced increases in numerical aberrations in the in vitro assay in CHL cells in the absence of metabolic activation. A positive response was obtained in the in vivo micronucleus assay in mice; however, the response was due to a mechanism not considered relevant to humans.
Impairment of Fertility
Female rats were treated with oral doses of 2, 6, and 20 mg/kg/day (0.6, 2, and 6 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on a mg/m² basis) of aripiprazole from 2 weeks prior to mating through day 7 of gestation. Estrus cycle irregularities and increased corpora lutea were seen at all doses, but no impairment of fertility was seen. Increased pre-implantation loss was seen at 6 and 20 mg/kg/day and decreased fetal weight was seen at 20 mg/kg/day.
Male rats were treated with oral doses of 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg/day (6, 13, and 19 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis) of aripiprazole from 9 weeks prior to mating through mating. Disturbances in spermatogenesis were seen at 60 mg/kg and prostate atrophy was seen at 40 and 60 mg/kg, but no impairment of fertility was seen.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to ABILIFY during pregnancy. For more information contact the National Pregnancy Registry for Atypical Antipsychotics at 1-866-961-2388 or visit http://womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-research-programs/pregnancyregistry/.
Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs, including ABILIFY MAINTENA, during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms. There are insufficient data with ABILIFY MAINTENA use in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk. In animal reproduction studies, oral and intravenous aripiprazole administration during organogenesis in rats and/or rabbits at doses 10 and 11 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) produced fetal death, decreased fetal weight, undescended testicles, delayed skeletal ossification, skeletal abnormalities, and diaphragmatic hernia. Oral and intravenous aripiprazole administration during the pre- and post-natal period in rats at doses 10 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) produced prolonged gestation, stillbirths, decreased pup weight, and decreased pup survival. Consider the benefits and risks of ABILIFY MAINTENA and possible risks to the fetus when prescribing ABILIFY MAINTENA to a pregnant woman. Advise pregnant women of potential fetal risk.
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population are unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms, including agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress and feeding disorder have been reported in neonates who were exposed to antipsychotic drugs (including oral aripiprazole) during the third trimester of pregnancy. These symptoms have varied in severity. Some neonates recovered within hours or days without specific treatment; others required prolonged hospitalization. Monitor neonates exhibiting extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms and manage symptoms appropriately.
In animal studies, aripiprazole demonstrated developmental toxicity, including possible teratogenic effects in rats and rabbits.
Pregnant rats were treated with oral doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day which are approximately 1 to 10 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 30 mg/day on mg/m² basis of aripiprazole during the period of organogenesis. Treatment at the highest dose caused a slight prolongation of gestation and delay in fetal development, as evidenced by decreased fetal weight and undescended testes. Delayed skeletal ossification was observed at 3 and 10 times the oral MRHD on mg/m² basis.
At 3 and 10 times the oral MRHD on mg/m² basis, delivered offspring had decreased body weights. Increased incidences of hepatodiaphragmatic nodules and diaphragmatic hernia were observed in offspring from the highest dose group (the other dose groups were not examined for these findings). Postnatally, delayed vaginal opening was seen at 3 and 10 times the oral MRHD on mg/m² basis and impaired reproductive performance (decreased fertility rate, corpora lutea, implants, live fetuses, and increased post-implantation loss, likely mediated through effects on female offspring) along with some maternal toxicity were seen at the highest dose; however, there was no evidence to suggest that these developmental effects were secondary to maternal toxicity.
In pregnant rats treated with aripiprazole intravenously at doses of 3, 9, and 27 mg/kg/day, which are 1 to 9 times the oral MRHD on mg/m² basis, during the period of organogenesis, decreased fetal weight and delayed skeletal ossification were seen at the highest dose which also caused maternal toxicity.
In pregnant rabbits treated with oral doses of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg/day which are 2 to 11 times human exposure at the oral MRHD based on AUC and 6 to 65 times the oral MRHD of aripiprazole on mg/m² basis during the period of organogenesis, decreased maternal food consumption and increased abortions were seen at the highest dose as well as increased fetal mortality. Decreased fetal weight and increased incidence of fused sternebrae were observed at 3 and 11 times the MRHD based on AUC.
In pregnant rabbits receiving aripiprazole injection intravenously at doses of 3 , 10 , and 30 mg/kg/day, which are 2 to 19 times the oral MRHD on mg/m² basis during the period of organogenesis, the highest dose caused pronounced maternal toxicity that resulted in decreased fetal weight, increased fetal abnormalities (primarily skeletal), and decreased fetal skeletal ossification. The fetal no-effect dose was 5 times the human exposure at the oral MRHD based on AUC and is 6 times the oral MRHD on mg/m² basis.
In rats treated with oral doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day, which are 1 to 10 times the oral MRHD of aripiprazole on a mg/m² basis, peri- and post-natally (from day 17 of gestation through day 21 postpartum), slight maternal toxicity and slightly prolonged gestation were seen at the highest dose. An increase in stillbirths and decreases in pup weight (persisting into adulthood) and survival were also seen at this dose.
In rats treated with aripiprazole intravenously at doses of 3, 8, and 20 mg/kg/day which are 1 to 6 times the oral MRHD on mg/m² basis from day 6 of gestation through day 20 postpartum, increased stillbirths were seen at 3 and 6 times the MRHD on mg/m² basis, and decreases in early postnatal pup weight and survival were seen at the highest dose; these doses produced some maternal toxicity. There were no effects on postnatal behavioral and reproductive development.
Aripiprazole is present in human breast milk; however, there are insufficient data to assess the amount in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. The development and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for ABILIFY MAINTENA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from ABILIFY MAINTENA or from the underlying maternal condition.
ABILIFY MAINTENA has not been studied in children 18 years of age or younger. However, juvenile animal studies have been conducted in rats and dogs.
Juvenile Animal Studies
Aripiprazole in juvenile rats caused mortality, CNS clinical signs, impaired memory and learning, and delayed sexual maturation when administered at oral doses of 10, 20, 40 mg/kg/day from weaning (21 days old) through maturity (80 days old). At 40 mg/kg/day, mortality, decreased activity, splayed hind limbs, hunched posture, ataxia, tremors and other CNS signs were observed in both genders. In addition, delayed sexual maturation was observed in males. At all doses and in a dose-dependent manner, impaired memory and learning, increased motor activity, and histopathology changes in the pituitary (atrophy), adrenals (adrenocortical hypertrophy), mammary glands (hyperplasia and increased secretion), and female reproductive organs (vaginal mucification, endometrial atrophy, decrease in ovarian corpora lutea) were observed. The changes in female reproductive organs were considered secondary to the increase in prolactin serum levels. A No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) could not be determined and, at the lowest tested dose of 10 mg/kg/day, there is no safety margin relative to the systemic exposures (AUC0-24) for aripiprazole or its major active metabolite in adolescents at the maximum recommended pediatric dose of 15 mg/day. All drug-related effects were reversible after a 2-month recovery period, and most of the drug effects in juvenile rats were also observed in adult rats from previously conducted studies.
Aripiprazole in juvenile dogs (2 months old) caused CNS clinical signs of tremors, hypoactivity, ataxia, recumbency and limited use of hind limbs when administered orally for 6 months at 3, 10, 30 mg/kg/day. Mean body weight and weight gain were decreased up to 18% in females in all drug groups relative to control values. A NOAEL could not be determined and, at the lowest tested dose of 3 mg/kg/day, there is no safety margin relative to the systemic exposures (AUC0-24) for aripiprazole or its major active metabolite in adolescents at the maximum recommended pediatric dose of 15 mg/day. All drug-related effects were reversible after a 2-month recovery period.
Clinical studies of oral aripiprazole did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience and pharmacokinetic data [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY have not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
In single-dose and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic studies, there was no detectable age effect in the population pharmacokinetic analysis of oral aripiprazole in schizophrenia patients [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. No dosage adjustments are recommended based on age alone. ABILIFY MAINTENA is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see also BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
CYP2D6 Poor Metabolizers
Dosage adjustment is recommended in known CYP2D6 poor metabolizers due to high aripiprazole concentrations. Approximately 8% of Caucasians and 3–8% of Black/African Americans cannot metabolize CYP2D6 substrates and are classified as poor metabolizers (PM) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Hepatic And Renal Impairment
No dosage adjustment for ABILIFY MAINTENA is required on the basis of a patient's hepatic function (mild to severe hepatic impairment, Child-Pugh score between 5 and 15), or renal function (mild to severe renal impairment, glomerular filtration rate between 15 and 90 mL/minute) [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Other Specific Populations
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/28/2016
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