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Increased Mortality In Elderly Patients With Dementia-Related Psychosis
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of 17 placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group.
Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. ABILIFY MAINTENA is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.
Cerebrovascular Adverse Reactions, Including Stroke In Elderly Patients With Dementia-Related Psychosis
In placebo-controlled clinical studies (two flexible dose and one fixed dose study) of dementia-related psychosis, there was an increased incidence of cerebrovascular adverse reactions (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatalities, in oral aripiprazole-treated patients (mean age: 84 years; range: 78-88 years). In the fixed-dose study, there was a statistically significant dose response relationship for cerebrovascular adverse reactions in patients treated with oral aripiprazole. ABILIFY MAINTENA is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) may occur with administration of antipsychotic drugs, including ABILIFY MAINTENA. Rare cases of NMS occurred during aripiprazole treatment in the worldwide clinical database.
Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure.
The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to exclude cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever, and primary central nervous system pathology.
The management of NMS should include: 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy; 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring; and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for uncomplicated NMS.
If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported.
A syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements, may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.
The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief treatment periods at low doses.
There is no known treatment for established tardive dyskinesia, although the syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is withdrawn. Antipsychotic treatment, itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome and, thereby, may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect of symptomatic suppression on the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown.
Given these considerations, ABILIFY MAINTENA should be prescribed in a manner that is most likely to minimize the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. Chronic antipsychotic treatment should generally be reserved for patients who suffer from a chronic illness that 1) is known to respond to antipsychotic drugs and 2) for whom alternative, equally effective, but potentially less harmful treatments are not available or appropriate. In patients who do require chronic treatment, the smallest dose and the shortest duration of treatment producing a satisfactory clinical response should be sought. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically.
If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient treated with ABILIFY MAINTENA drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment with ABILIFY MAINTENA despite the presence of the syndrome.
Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes that include hyperglycemia/diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and weight gain. While all drugs in the class have been shown to produce some metabolic changes, each drug has its own specific risk profile. Although the following metabolic data were collected in patients treated with oral formulations of aripiprazole, the findings pertain to patients receiving ABILIFY MAINTENA as well.
Hyperglycemia, in some cases extreme and associated with diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar coma, or death, has been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. There have been reports of hyperglycemia in patients treated with aripiprazole [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Assessment of the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and glucose abnormalities is complicated by the possibility of an increased background risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia and the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the general population. Given these confounders, the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and hyperglycemia-related adverse reactions is not completely understood. However, epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of hyperglycemia-related adverse reactions in patients treated with the atypical antipsychotics. Because aripiprazole was not marketed at the time these studies were performed, it is not known if aripiprazole is associated with this increased risk. Precise risk estimates for hyperglycemiarelated adverse reactions in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics are not available. Patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus who are started on atypical antipsychotics should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients with risk factors for diabetes mellitus (e.g., obesity, family history of diabetes), who are starting treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment and periodically during treatment. Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when the atypical antipsychotic was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of anti-diabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the atypical antipsychotic drug.
In an analysis of 13 placebo-controlled monotherapy trials in adults, primarily with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, the mean change in fasting glucose in aripiprazole-treated patients (+4.4 mg/dL; median exposure 25 days; N=1057) was not significantly different than in placebo-treated patients (+2.5 mg/dL; median exposure 22 days; N=799). Table 4 shows the proportion of aripiprazole-treated patients with normal and borderline fasting glucose at baseline (median exposure 25 days) that had high fasting glucose measurements compared to placebo-treated patients (median exposure 22 days).
Table 4: Changes in Fasting Glucose From
Placebo-Controlled Monotherapy Trials in Adult Patients
|Category Change (at least once) from Baseline||Treatment Arm||n/N||%|
|Fasting Glucose||Normal to High ( < 100 mg/dL to ≥ 126 mg/dL)||Aripiprazole||31/822||3.8|
|Borderline to High ( ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 126 mg/dL to ≥ 126 mg/dL)||Aripiprazole||31/176||17.6|
At 24 weeks, the mean change in fasting glucose in aripiprazole-treated patients was not significantly different than in placebo-treated patients [+2.2 mg/dL (n=42) and +9.6 mg/dL (n=28), respectively].
Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.
There were no significant differences between aripiprazole- and placebo-treated patients in the proportion with changes from normal to clinically significant levels for fasting/nonfasting total cholesterol, fasting triglycerides, fasting LDLs, and fasting/ nonfasting HDLs. Analyses of patients with at least 12 or 24 weeks of exposure were limited by small numbers of patients.
Table 5 shows the proportion of adult patients, primarily from pooled schizophrenia and bipolar disorder monotherapy placebo-controlled trials, with changes in total cholesterol (pooled from 17 trials; median exposure 21 to 25 days), fasting triglycerides (pooled from eight trials; median exposure 42 days), fasting LDL cholesterol (pooled from eight trials; median exposure 39 to 45 days, except for placebo-treated patients with baseline normal fasting LDL measurements, who had median treatment exposure of 24 days) and HDL cholesterol (pooled from nine trials; median exposure 40 to 42 days).
Table 5: Changes in Blood Lipid Parameters From
Placebo-Controlled Monotherapy Trials in Adults
|Normal to High ( < 200 mg/dL to ≥ 240 mg/dL)||Placebo||27/973||2.8|
|Normal to High ( < 150 mg/dL to ≥ 200 mg/dL)||Placebo||30/431||7.0|
|Fasting LDL Cholesterol||Aripiprazole||2/332||0.6|
|Normal to High ( < 100 mg/dL to ≥ 160 mg/dL)||Placebo||2/268||0.7|
|Normal to Low ( ≥ 40 mg/dL to < 40 mg/dL)||Placebo||99/794||12.5|
In monotherapy trials in adults, the proportion of patients at 12 weeks and 24 weeks with changes from Normal to High in total cholesterol (fasting/nonfasting), fasting triglycerides, and fasting LDL cholesterol were similar between aripiprazole- and placebo-treated patients: at 12 weeks, Total Cholesterol (fasting/nonfasting), 1/71 (1.4%) vs. 3/74 (4.1%); Fasting Triglycerides, 8/62 (12.9%) vs. 5/37 (13.5%); Fasting LDL Cholesterol, 0/34 (0%) vs. 1/25 (4.0%), respectively; and at 24 weeks, Total Cholesterol (fasting/nonfasting), 1/42 (2.4%) vs. 3/37 (8.1%); Fasting Triglycerides, 5/34 (14.7%) vs. 5/20 (25%); Fasting LDL Cholesterol, 0/22 (0%) vs. 1/18 (5.6%), respectively.
Weight gain has been observed with atypical antipsychotic use. Clinical monitoring of weight is recommended.
In an analysis of 13 placebo-controlled monotherapy trials, primarily from pooled schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, with a median exposure of 21 to 25 days, the mean change in body weight in aripiprazole-treated patients was +0.3 kg (N=1673) compared to –0.1 kg (N=1100) in placebo-controlled patients. At 24 weeks, the mean change from baseline in body weight in aripiprazole-treated patients was –1.5 kg (n=73) compared to –0.2 kg (n=46) in placebo-treated patients.
Table 6 shows the percentage of adult patients with weight gain ≥ 7% of body weight in the 13 pooled placebo-controlled monotherapy trials.
Table 6: Percentage of Patients From
Placebo-Controlled Trials in Adult Patients with Weight Gain ≥ 7%
of Body Weight
|Indication||Treatment Arm||N||Patients n (%)|
|Weight gain ≥ 7% of body weight||Schizophreniaa||Aripiprazole||852||69 (8.1)|
|Bipolar Maniab||Aripiprazole||719||16 (2.2)|
|a 4-6 weeks duration.
b 3 weeks duration.
Aripiprazole may cause orthostatic hypotension, perhaps due to its α1-adrenergic receptor antagonism. Orthostasis occurred in 4/576 (0.7%) patients treated with ABILIFY MAINTENA during the stabilization phase, including abnormal orthostatic blood pressure (1/576, 0.2%), postural dizziness (1/576, 0.2%), presyncope (1/576, 0.2%) and orthostatic hypotension (1/576, 0.2%).
In the stabilization phase, the incidence of significant orthostatic change in blood pressure (defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure ≥ 20 mmHg accompanied by an increase in heart rate ≥ 25 when comparing standing to supine values) was 0.2% (1/575).
Leukopenia, Neutropenia, And Agranulocytosis
In clinical trials and post-marketing experience, leukopenia and neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents, including oral aripiprazole. Agranulocytosis has also been reported.
Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC) and history of drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia. In patients with a history of a clinically significant low WBC or drug-induced leukopenia/ neutropenia perform a complete blood count (CBC) frequently during the first few months of therapy. In such patients, consider discontinuation of ABILIFY MAINTENA at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors.
Monitor patients with clinically significant neutropenia for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treat promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Discontinue ABILIFY MAINTENA in patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count < 1000/mm³) and follow their WBC counts until recovery.
As with other antipsychotic drugs, use ABILIFY MAINTENA cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that lower the seizure threshold. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of 65 years or older.
Potential For Cognitive And Motor Impairment
ABILIFY MAINTENA, like other antipsychotics, may impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. Instruct patients to avoid operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that therapy with ABILIFY MAINTENA does not affect them adversely.
Body Temperature Regulation
Disruption of the body's ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Appropriate care is advised when prescribing ABILIFY MAINTENA for patients who will be experiencing conditions which may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature, (e.g., exercising strenuously, exposure to extreme heat, receiving concomitant medication with anticholinergic activity, or being subject to dehydration).
Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use, including ABILIFY MAINTENA. ABILIFY MAINTENA and other antipsychotic drugs should be used cautiously in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia [see Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis].
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide)
Discuss the following issues with patients for whom they prescribe ABILIFY MAINTENA.
Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis
Advise patients and caregivers that elderly patients with dementia-related psychoses treated with antipsychotic drugs are at increased risk of death. Aripiprazole is not approved for elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Counsel patients and caregivers that a potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as NMS has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs. Signs and symptoms of NMS include hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients that abnormal involuntary movements have been associated with the administration of antipsychotic drugs. Counsel patients to notify their physician if they notice any movements which they cannot control in their face, tongue, or other body part [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Hyperglycemia and Diabetes mellitus
Advise patients of the symptoms of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Patients who are diagnosed with diabetes, those with risk factors for diabetes, or those that develop these symptoms during treatment should have their blood glucose monitored at the beginning of and periodically during treatment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients of the risk of orthostatic hypotension, particularly at the time of initiating treatment, re-initiating treatment, or increasing the dose [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients with a pre-existing low WBC count or a history of drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia that they should have their CBC monitored while receiving ABILIFY MAINTENA [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Interference with Cognitive and Motor Performance
Because ABILIFY MAINTENA may have the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, instruct patients to be cautious about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that ABILIFY MAINTENA therapy does not affect them adversely [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Heat Exposure and Dehydration
Advise patients regarding appropriate care in avoiding overheating and dehydration [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients to inform their physicians if they are taking, or plan to take, any prescription or over-the-counter drugs, since there is a potential for interactions [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Advise patients to notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy with ABILIFY MAINTENA [see Use In Specific Populations].
Aripiprazole is excreted in human breast milk. A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue ABILIFY MAINTENA, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother [see Use in Specific Populations].
Advise patients to avoid alcohol while taking ABILIFY MAINTENA [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Lifetime carcinogenicity studies were conducted in ICR mice and in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and F344 rats. Aripiprazole was administered for 2 years in the diet at dosesof 1 mg/kg/day, 3 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day, and 30 mg/kg/day to ICR mice and 1 mg/kg/day, 3 mg/kg/day, and 10 mg/kg/day to F344 rats (0.2 times to 5 times and 0.3 times to 3 times the oral maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 30 mg/day based on mg/m² body surface area, respectively). In addition, SD rats were dosed orally for 2 years at 10 mg/kg/day, 20 mg/kg/day, 40 mg/kg/day, and 60 mg/kg/day (3 times to 19 times the oral MRHD of 30 mg/day based on mg/m² body surface area). Aripiprazole did not induce tumors in male mice or rats. In female mice, the incidences of pituitary gland adenomas and mammary gland adenocarcinomas and adenoacanthomas were increased at dietary doses of 3 mg/kg/day to 30 mg/kg/day (0.1 times to approximately 1 times human exposure at the oral MRHD of 30 mg/day based on AUC and 0.5 times to 5 times the oral MRHD of 30 mg/day based on mg/m² body surface area). In female rats, the incidence of mammary gland fibroadenomas was increased at a dietary dose of 10 mg/kg/day (0.1 times human exposure at the oral MRHD of 30 mg/day based on AUC and 3 times the oral MRHD of 30 mg/day based on mg/m² body surface area); and the incidences of adrenocortical carcinomas and combined adrenocortical adenomas/carcinomas were increased at an oral dose of 60 mg/kg/day (14 times human exposure at the oral MRHD of 30 mg/day based on AUC and 19 times the oral MRHD of 30 mg/day based on mg/m² body surface area).
Proliferative changes in the pituitary and mammary gland of rodents have been observed following chronic administration of other antipsychotic agents and are considered prolactin-mediated. Serum prolactin was not measured in the aripiprazole carcinogenicity studies. However, increases in serum prolactin levels were observed in female mice in a 13-week dietary study at the doses associated with mammary gland and pituitary tumors. Serum prolactin was not increased in female rats in 4-week and 13-week dietary studies at the dose associated with mammary gland tumors. The relevance for human risk of the findings of prolactin-mediated endocrine tumors in rodents is unknown.
Aripiprazole was not mutagenic when tested in the in vitro bacterial mutation assay, the in vitro bacterial DNA repair assay, and the in vitro mouse lymphoma gene mutation assay. The clastogenic potential of aripiprazole was tested in the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, the in vivo micronucleus assay in mice, and the unscheduled DNA synthesis assay in rats. Aripiprazole and its metabolite (2,3-DCPP) were clastogenic in the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in CHL cells both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. The metabolite, 2,3-DCPP, produced increases in numerical aberrations in the in vitro assay in CHL cells in the absence of metabolic activation. A positive response was obtained in the oral in vivo micronucleus assay in mice; however, the response was due to a mechanism not considered relevant to humans.
Impairment of Fertility
Female rats were treated with oral doses of 2 mg/kg/day, 6 mg/kg/day, and 20 mg/kg/day (0.6 times, 2 times, and 6 times the oral maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 30 mg/day on a mg/m² body surface area) of aripiprazole from 2 weeks prior to mating through day 7 of gestation. Estrus cycle irregularities and increased corpora lutea were seen at all doses, but no impairment of fertility was seen. Increased pre-implantation loss was seen at 6 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg and decreased fetal weight was seen at 20 mg/kg.
Male rats were treated with oral doses of 20 mg/kg/day, 40 mg/kg/day, and 60 mg/kg/day (6 times, 13 times, and 19 times the oral MRHD of 30 mg/day on a mg/m² body surface area) of aripiprazole from 9 weeks prior to mating through mating. Disturbances in spermatogenesis were seen at 60 mg/kg and prostate atrophy was seen at 40 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg, but no impairment of fertility was seen.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
Adequate and well controlled studies with aripiprazole have not been conducted in pregnant women. Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs (including ABILIFY MAINTENA) during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. In animal studies, aripiprazole demonstrated developmental toxicity, including possible teratogenic effects in rats and rabbits at doses 1 - 10 times the oral maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 30 mg/day based on a mg/m² body surface area. ABILIFY MAINTENA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Monitor neonates exhibiting extrapyramidal or withdrawal symptoms. Some neonates recover within hours or days without specific treatment; others may require prolonged hospitalization.
Pregnant rats were treated with oral doses of 3 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day, and 30 mg/kg/day (1 times, 3 times, and 10 times the oral maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 30 mg/day on a mg/m² body surface area) of aripiprazole during the period of organogenesis. Gestation was slightly prolonged at 30 mg/kg. Treatment caused a slight delay in fetal development, as evidenced by decreased fetal weight (30 mg/kg), undescended testes (30 mg/kg), and delayed skeletal ossification (10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg). There were no adverse effects on embryofetal or pup survival. Delivered offspring had decreased body weights (10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg), and increased incidences of hepatodiaphragmatic nodules and diaphragmatic hernia at 30 mg/kg (the other dose groups were not examined for these findings). A low incidence of diaphragmatic hernia was also seen in the fetuses exposed to 30 mg/kg. Postnatally, delayed vaginal opening was seen at 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg and impaired reproductive performance (decreased fertility rate, corpora lutea, implants, live fetuses, and increased post-implantation loss, likely mediated through effects on female offspring) was seen at 30 mg/kg. Some maternal toxicity was seen at 30 mg/kg; however, there was no evidence to suggest that these developmental effects were secondary to maternal toxicity.
In pregnant rats receiving aripiprazole injection intravenously (3 mg/kg/day, 9 mg/kg/day, and 27 mg/kg/day) during the period of organogenesis, decreased fetal weight and delayed skeletal ossification were seen at the highest dose, which also caused some maternal toxicity.
Pregnant rabbits were treated with oral doses of 10 mg/kg/day, 30 mg/kg/day, and 100 mg/kg/day (2 times, 3 times, and 11 times human exposure at the oral MRHD of 30 mg/day based on AUC and 6 times, 19 times, and 65 times the oral MRHD of 30 mg/day based on mg/m² body surface area) of aripiprazole during the period of organogenesis. Decreased maternal food consumption and increased abortions were seen at 100 mg/kg. Treatment caused increased fetal mortality (100 mg/kg), decreased fetal weight (30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), increased incidence of a skeletal abnormality (fused sternebrae at 30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), and minor skeletal variations (100 mg/kg).
In pregnant rabbits receiving aripiprazole injection intravenously (3 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day, and 30 mg/kg/day) during the period of organogenesis, the highest dose, which caused pronounced maternal toxicity, resulted in decreased fetal weight, increased fetal abnormalities (primarily skeletal), and decreased fetal skeletal ossification. The fetal no-effect dose was 10 mg/kg, which produced 5 times the human exposure at the oral MRHD based on AUC and is 6 times the oral MRHD of 30 mg/day based on mg/m² body surface area.
In a study in which rats were treated with oral doses of 3 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day, and 30 mg/kg/day (1 times, 3 times, and 10 times the oral MRHD of 30 mg/day on a mg/m² body surface area) of aripiprazole perinatally and postnatally (from day 17 of gestation through day 21 postpartum), slight maternal toxicity and slightly prolonged gestation were seen at 30 mg/kg. An increase in stillbirths and decreases in pup weight (persisting into adulthood) and survival were seen at this dose.
In rats receiving aripiprazole injection intravenously (3 mg/kg/day, 8 mg/kg/day, and 20 mg/kg/day) from day 6 of gestation through day 20 postpartum, an increase in stillbirths was seen at 8 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, and decreases in early postnatal pup weights and survival were seen at 20 mg/kg. These doses produced some maternal toxicity. There were no effects on postnatal behavioral and reproductive development.
Aripiprazole is excreted in human breast milk. A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness of ABILIFY MAINTENA in patients < 18 years of age have not been evaluated.
Safety and effectiveness of ABILIFY MAINTENA in patients > 60 years of age have not been evaluated.
In oral single-dose pharmacokinetic studies (with aripiprazole given in a single oral dose of 15 mg), aripiprazole clearance was 20% lower in elderly ( ≥ 65 years) subjects compared to younger adult subjects (18 to 64 years). There was no detectable age effect, however, in the population pharmacokinetic analysis of oral aripiprazole in schizophrenia patients. Also, the pharmacokinetics of oral aripiprazole after multiple doses in elderly patients appeared similar to that observed in young, healthy subjects. No dosage adjustment of ABILIFY MAINTENA is recommended for elderly patients [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
CYP2D6 Poor Metabolizers
Approximately 8% of Caucasians and 3–8% of Black/African Americans cannot metabolize CYP2D6 substrates and are classified as poor metabolizers (PM). Dosage adjustment is recommended in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers due to high aripiprazole concentrations [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/12/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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