"What are ACE inhibitors and how do they work?
The class of drugs called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, as the class name suggests, reduces the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme. ACE converts angiotensin I pr"...
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse event rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Clinical Trials Experience
The following adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere in labeling:
- Anaphylactoid reactions, including angioedema [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hypotension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Neutropenia and agranulocytosis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Impaired renal function [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hyperkalemia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Cough [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
ACEON has been evaluated for safety in approximately 3,400 patients with hypertension in U.S. and foreign clinical trials. The data presented here are based on results from the 1,417 ACEON-treated patients who participated in the U.S. clinical trials. Over 220 of these patients were treated with ACEON® (perindopril erbumine) for at least one year.
In placebo-controlled U.S. clinical trials, the incidence of premature discontinuation of therapy due to adverse events was 6.5% in patients treated with ACEON and 6.7% in patients treated with placebo. The most common causes were cough, headache, asthenia and dizziness.
Among 1,012 patients in placebo-controlled U.S. trials, the overall frequency of reported adverse events was similar in patients treated with ACEON and in those treated with placebo (approximately 75% in each group). The only adverse events whose incidence on ACEON was at least 2% greater than on placebo were cough (12% vs. 4.5%) and back pain (5.8% vs. 3.1%).
Dizziness was not reported more frequently in the perindopril group (8.2%) than in the placebo group (8.5%), but its likelihood increased with dose, suggesting a causal relationship with perindopril.
Stable Coronary Artery Disease
Perindopril has been evaluated for safety in EUROPA, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 12,218 patients with stable coronary artery disease. The overall rate of discontinuation was about 22% on drug and placebo. The most common medical reasons for discontinuation that were more frequent on perindopril than placebo were cough, drug intolerance and hypotension.
Voluntary reports of adverse events in patients taking ACEON that have been received since market introduction and are of unknown causal relationship to ACEON include: cardiac arrest, eosinophilic pneumonitis, neutropenia/agranulocytosis, pancytopenia, anemia (including hemolytic and aplastic), thrombocytopenia, acute renal failure, nephritis, hepatic failure, jaundice (hepatocellular or cholestatic), symptomatic hyponatremia, bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus, acute pancreatitis, falls, psoriasis, exfoliative dermatitis and a syndrome which may include: arthralgia/arthritis, vasculitis, serositis, myalgia, fever, rash or other dermatologic manifestations, a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA), leukocytosis, eosinophilia or an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
Clinical Laboratory Test Findings
Small decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit occur frequently in hypertensive patients treated with ACEON, but are rarely of clinical importance. In controlled clinical trials, no patient was discontinued from therapy due to the development of anemia. Leukopenia (including neutropenia) was observed in 0.1% of patients in U.S. clinical trials [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Liver Function Tests
Elevations in ALT (1.6% ACEON versus 0.9% placebo) and AST (0.5% ACEON versus 0.4% placebo) have been observed in placebo-controlled clinical trials. The elevations were generally mild and transient and resolved after discontinuation of therapy.
Read the Aceon (perindopril erbumine) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Patients on diuretics, and especially those started recently, may occasionally experience an excessive reduction of blood pressure after initiation of ACEON therapy. The possibility of hypotensive effects can be minimized by either decreasing the dose of or discontinuing the diuretic or increasing the salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with perindopril. If diuretic therapy cannot be altered, provide close medical supervision with the first dose of ACEON, for at least two hours and until blood pressure has stabilized for another hour [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
The rate and extent of perindopril absorption and elimination are not affected by concomitant diuretics. The bioavailability of perindoprilat was reduced by diuretics, however, and this was associated with a decrease in plasma ACE inhibition.
Potassium Supplements and Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
ACEON may increase serum potassium because of its potential to decrease aldosterone production. Use of potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene and others), potassium supplements or other drugs capable of increasing serum potassium (indomethacin, heparin, cyclosporine and others) can increase the risk of hyperkalemia. Therefore, if concomitant use of such agents is indicated, monitor the patient's serum potassium frequently.
Increased serum lithium and symptoms of lithium toxicity have been reported in patients receiving concomitant lithium and WARNING: AVOID USE IN PREGNANCYWhen pregnancy is detected, discontinue ACEON as soon as possible. Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury to or death of the developing fetus (5.4)
ACE inhibitor therapy. Frequent monitoring of serum lithium concentration is recommended. Use of a diuretic may further increase the risk of lithium toxicity.
Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE Inhibitor therapy including ACEON.
A controlled pharmacokinetic study has shown no effect on plasma digoxin concentrations when coadministered with ACEON, but an effect of digoxin on the plasma concentration of perindopril/perindoprilat has not been excluded.
Animal data have suggested the possibility of interaction between perindopril and gentamicin. However, this has not been investigated in human studies.
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors)
In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with ACE inhibitors, including perindopril, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving perindopril and NSAID therapy.
Read the Aceon Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/19/2012
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