"What are antacids, and how do they work?
Antacids are a class of drugs used to treat conditions caused by the acid that is produced by the stomach. The stomach naturally secretes an acid called hydrochloric acid that helps to break "...
Presence Of Gastric Malignancy
Symptomatic response to therapy with ACIPHEX does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy.
Patients with healed GERD were treated for up to 40 months with ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets and monitored with serial gastric biopsies. Patients without H. pylori infection (221 of 326 patients) had no clinically important pathologic changes in the gastric mucosa. Patients with H. pylori infection at baseline (105 of 326 patients) had mild or moderate inflammation in the gastric body or mild inflammation in the gastric antrum. Patients with mild grades of infection or inflammation in the gastric body tended to change to moderate, whereas those graded moderate at baseline tended to remain stable. Patients with mild grades of infection or inflammation in the gastric antrum tended to remain stable. At baseline 8% of patients had atrophy of glands in the gastric body and 15% had atrophy in the gastric antrum. At endpoint, 15% of patients had atrophy of glands in the gastric body and 11% had atrophy in the gastric antrum. Approximately 4% of patients had intestinal metaplasia at some point during follow-up, but no consistent changes were seen.
Interaction With Warfarin
Steady state interactions of rabeprazole and warfarin have not been adequately evaluated in patients. There have been reports of increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving a proton pump inhibitor and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets and warfarin concomitantly may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Acute Interstitial Nephritis
Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs including ACIPHEX. Acute interstitial nephritis may occur at any point during PPI therapy and is generally attributed to an idiopathic hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue ACIPHEX if acute interstitial nephritis develops [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) Deficiency
Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) caused by hypo-or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed in patients treated with ACIPHEX.
Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea
Published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy like ACIPHEX may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents. For more information specific to antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated for use in combination with ACIPHEX, refer to Warnings and Precautions sections of the corresponding prescribing information.
Several published observational studies in adults suggest that PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist, or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.
For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), healthcare professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Interaction With Methotrexate
Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum concentrations of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration, a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Advise patients to report to their healthcare provider if they experience any signs or symptoms consistent with:
- Hypersensitivity Reactions [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
- Acute Interstitial Nephritis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) Deficiency [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Bone Fracture [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Hypomagnesemia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients to report to their healthcare provider if they are taking warfarin or high-dose methotrexate [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Swallow ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets whole. Do not chew, crush or split the tablets.
- For the treatment of duodenal ulcers take ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets after a meal.
- For Helicobacter pylori eradication take ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets with food.
- For all other indications ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets can be taken with or without food.
- Take a missed dose as soon as possible. If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to the normal schedule. Do not take two doses at the same time.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
In a 88/104-week carcinogenicity study in CD-1 mice, rabeprazole at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg/day did not produce any increased tumor occurrence. The highest tested dose produced a systemic exposure to rabeprazole (AUC) of 1.40 μg•hr/mL which is 1.6 times the human exposure (plasma AUC0-∞ = 0.88 μg•hr/mL) at the recommended dose for GERD (20 mg/day). In a 28-week carcinogenicity study in p53+/-transgenic mice, rabeprazole at oral doses of 20, 60, and 200 mg/kg/day did not cause an increase in the incidence rates of tumors but produced gastric mucosal hyperplasia at all doses. The systemic exposure to rabeprazole at 200 mg/kg/day is about 17 to 24 times the human exposure at the recommended dose for GERD. In a 104-week carcinogenicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats, males were treated with oral doses of 5, 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg/day and females with 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg/day. Rabeprazole produced gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia in male and female rats and ECL cell carcinoid tumors in female rats at all doses including the lowest tested dose. The lowest dose (5 mg/kg/day) produced a systemic exposure to rabeprazole (AUC) of about 0.1 μg•hr/mL which is about 0.1 times the human exposure at the recommended dose for GERD. In male rats, no treatment related tumors were observed at doses up to 60 mg/kg/day producing a rabeprazole plasma exposure (AUC) of about 0.2 μg•hr/mL (0.2 times the human exposure at the recommended dose for GERD).
Rabeprazole was positive in the Ames test, the Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO/HGPRT) forward gene mutation test, and the mouse lymphoma cell (L5178Y/TK+/–) forward gene mutation test. Its demethylated-metabolite was also positive in the Ames test. Rabeprazole was negative in the in vitro Chinese hamster lung cell chromosome aberration test, the in vivo mouse micronucleus test, and the in vivo and ex vivo rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) tests.
Rabeprazole at intravenous doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (plasma AUC of 8.8 μg•hr/mL, about 10 times the human exposure at the recommended dose for GERD) was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance of male and female rats.
Use In Specific Populations
There are no available human data on ACIPHEX use in pregnant women to inform the drug associated risk. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations are unknown. However, the background risk in the U.S. general population of major birth defects is 2 to 4% and of miscarriage is 15 to 20% of clinically recognized pregnancies. No evidence of adverse developmental effects were seen in animal reproduction studies with rabeprazole administered during organogenesis at 13 and 8 times the human area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) at the recommended dose for GERD,in rats and rabbits, respectively [see Data].
Changes in bone morphology were observed in offspring of rats treated with oral doses of a different PPI through most of pregnancy and lactation [see Data]. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
Embryo-fetal developmental studies have been performed in rats during organogenesis at intravenous doses of rabeprazole up to 50 mg/kg/day (plasma AUC of 11.8 μg•hr/mL, about 13 times the human exposure at the recommended oral dose for GERD) and rabbits at intravenous doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (plasma AUC of 7.3 μg•hr/mL, about 8 times the human exposure at the recommended oral dose for GERD) and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to rabeprazole.
Administration of rabeprazole to rats in late gestation and during lactation at an oral dose of 400 mg/kg/day (about 195-times the human oral dose based on mg/m²) resulted in decreases in body weight gain of the pups.
A pre-and postnatal developmental toxicity study in rats with additional endpoints to evaluate bone development was performed with a different PPI at about 3.4 to 57 times an oral human dose on a body surface area basis. Decreased femur length, width and thickness of cortical bone, decreased thickness of the tibial growth plate, and minimal to mild bone marrow hypocellularity were noted at doses of this PPI equal to or greater than 3.4 times an oral human dose on a body surface area basis. Physeal dysplasia in the femur was also observed in offspring after in utero and lactational exposure to the PPI at doses equal to or greater than 33.6 times an oral human dose on a body surface area basis. Effects on maternal bone were observed in pregnant and lactating rats in a pre-and postnatal toxicity study when the PPI was administered at oral doses of 3.4 to 57 times an oral human dose on a body surface area basis. When rats were dosed from gestational day 7 through weaning on postnatal day 21, a statistically significant decrease in maternal femur weight of up to 14% (as compared to placebo treatment) was observed at doses equal to or greater than 33.6 times an oral human dose on a body surface area basis.
Lactation studies have not been conducted to assess the presence of rabeprazole in human milk, the effects of rabeprazole on the breastfed infant, or the effects of rabeprazole on milk production. Rabeprazole is present in rat milk. The development and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for ACIPHEX and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from ACIPHEX or from the underlying maternal condition.
The safety and effectiveness of ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets have been established in pediatric patients for adolescent patients 12 years of age and older for the treatment of symptomatic GERD. Use of ACIPEX delayed-release tablets in this age group is supported by adequate and well controlled studies in adults and a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study in 111 adolescent patients 12 to 16 years of age. Patients had a clinical diagnosis of symptomatic GERD, or suspected or endoscopically proven GERD and were randomized to either 10 mg or 20 mg once daily for up to 8 weeks for the evaluation of safety and efficacy. The adverse reaction profile in adolescent patients was similar to that of adults. The related reported adverse reactions that occurred in ≥ 2% of patients were headache (5%) and nausea (2%). There were no adverse reactions reported in these studies that were not previously observed in adults.
The safety and effectiveness of ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets have not been established in pediatric patients for:
- Healing of Erosive or Ulcerative GERD
- Maintenance of Healing of Erosive or Ulcerative GERD
- Treatment of Symptomatic GERD
- Healing of Duodenal Ulcers
- Helicobacter pylori Eradication to Reduce the Risk of Duodenal Ulcer Recurrence
- Treatment of Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions, Including Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
ACIPHEX delayed-release 20 mg tablets are not recommended for use in pediatric patients less than 12 years of age because the tablet strength exceeds the recommended dose for these patients [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. For pediatric patients 1 year to less than 12 years of age consider another rabeprazole formulation. The safety and effectiveness of a different dosage form and dosage strength of rabeprazole has been established in pediatric patients 1 to 11 years for the treatment of GERD.
Juvenile Animal Data
Studies in juvenile and young adult rats and dogs were performed. In juvenile animal studies rabeprazole sodium was administered orally to rats for up to 5 weeks and to dogs for up to 13 weeks, each commencing on Day 7 post-partum and followed by a 13-week recovery period. Rats were dosed at 5, 25, or 150 mg/kg/day and dogs were dosed at 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg/day. The data from these studies were comparable to those reported for young adult animals. Pharmacologically mediated changes, including increased serum gastrin levels and stomach changes, were observed at all dose levels in both rats and dogs. These observations were reversible over the 13-week recovery periods. Although body weights and/or crown-rump lengths were minimally decreased during dosing, no effects on the development parameters were noted in either juvenile rats or dogs.
When juvenile animals were treated for 28 days with a different PPI at doses equal to or greater than 34 times the daily oral human dose on a body surface area basis, overall growth was affected and treatment-related decreases in body weight (approximately 14%) and body weight gain, and decreases in femur weight and femur length were observed.
Of the total number of subjects (n=2009) in clinical studies of ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets, 19% were 65 years and over, while 4% were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Administration of ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets to patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and B, respectively) resulted in increased exposure and decreased elimination [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. There is no information in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C). Avoid use of ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets in patients with severe hepatic impairment; however, if treatment is necessary, monitor patients for adverse reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/19/2016
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