"Dec. 20, 2010 -- New research suggests that one out of every 200 patients being treated with gastric acid-suppressive drugs for heartburn and other conditions may develop pneumonia.
Researchers led by Chun-Sick Eom, MD, MPH, from Seoul "...
Presence Of Gastric Malignancy
Symptomatic response to therapy with rabeprazole does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy.
Patients with healed GERD were treated for up to 40 months with rabeprazole and monitored with serial gastric biopsies. Patients without H. pylori infection (221 of 326 patients) had no clinically important pathologic changes in the gastric mucosa. Patients with H. pylori infection at baseline (105 of 326 patients) had mild or moderate inflammation in the gastric body or mild inflammation in the gastric antrum. Patients with mild grades of infection or inflammation in the gastric body tended to change to moderate, whereas those graded moderate at baseline tended to remain stable. Patients with mild grades of infection or inflammation in the gastric antrum tended to remain stable. At baseline, 8% of patients had atrophy of glands in the gastric body and 15% had atrophy in the gastric antrum. At endpoint, 15% of patients had atrophy of glands in the gastric body and 11% had atrophy in the gastric antrum. Approximately 4% of patients had intestinal metaplasia at some point during follow-up, but no consistent changes were seen.
Concomitant Use With Warfarin
Steady state interactions of rabeprazole and warfarin have not been adequately evaluated in patients. There have been reports of increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving a proton pump inhibitor and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with a proton pump inhibitor and warfarin concomitantly may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time.
Acute Interstitial Nephritis
Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs including ACIPHEX. Acute interstitial nephritis may occur at any point during PPI therapy and is generally attributed to an idiopathic hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue ACIPHEX if acute interstitial nephritis develops [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) Deficiency
Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) caused by hypo-or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed.
Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea
Published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy like ACIPHEX may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents. For more information specific to antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated for use in combination with ACIPHEX, refer to WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS sections of those package inserts.
Several published observational studies in adults suggest that PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist, or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.
For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), healthcare professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Concomitant Use Of ACIPHEX With Methotrexate
Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration, a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
How to Take ACIPHEX
Patients should be cautioned that ACIPHEX Delayed-Release Tablets should be swallowed whole. The tablets should not be chewed, crushed, or split. ACIPHEX can be taken with or without food.
ACIPHEX Sprinkle Delayed-Release Capsules should be opened and the granule contents sprinkled on a small amount of soft food (e.g., applesauce, fruit, or vegetable based baby food, or yogurt) or empty contents into a small amount of liquid (e.g., infant formula, apple juice, or pediatric electrolyte solution). Food or liquid should be at or below room temperature. The whole dose should be taken within 15 minutes of being sprinkled. The granules should not be chewed or crushed. The dose should be taken 30 minutes before a meal. Do not store mixture for future use.
Advise patient to immediately report and seek care for diarrhea that does not improve. This may be a sign of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
In a 88/104-week carcinogenicity study in CD-1 mice, rabeprazole at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg/day did not produce any increased tumor occurrence. The highest tested dose produced a systemic exposure to rabeprazole (AUC) of 1.40 μg•hr/mL, which is 1.6 times the human exposure (plasma AUC0-∞ = 0.88 μg•hr/mL) at the recommended dose for GERD (20 mg/day). In a 28-week carcinogenicity study in p53+/-transgenic mice, rabeprazole at oral doses of 20, 60, and 200 mg/kg/day did not cause an increase in the incidence rates of tumors but produced gastric mucosal hyperplasia at all doses. The systemic exposure to rabeprazole at 200 mg/kg/day is about 17 to 24 times the human exposure at the recommended dose for GERD. In a 104-week carcinogenicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats, males were treated with oral doses of 5, 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day and females with 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg/day. Rabeprazole produced gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia in male and female rats and ECL cell carcinoid tumors in female rats at all doses including the lowest tested dose. The lowest dose (5 mg/kg/day) produced a systemic exposure to rabeprazole (AUC) of about 0.1 μg•hr/mL, which is about 0.1 times the human exposure at the recommended dose for GERD. In male rats, no treatment related tumors were observed at doses up to 60 mg/kg/day producing a rabeprazole plasma exposure (AUC) of about 0.2 μg•hr/mL (0.2 times the human exposure at the recommended dose for GERD).
Rabeprazole was positive in the Ames test, the Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO/HGPRT) forward gene mutation test, and the mouse lymphoma cell (L5178Y/TK+/–) forward gene mutation test. Its demethylated-metabolite was also positive in the Ames test. Rabeprazole was negative in the in vitro Chinese hamster lung cell chromosome aberration test, the in vivo mouse micronucleus test, and the in vivo and ex vivo rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) tests.
Rabeprazole at intravenous doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (plasma AUC of 8.8 μg•hr/mL, about 10 times the human exposure at the recommended dose for GERD) was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance of male and female rats.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with ACIPHEX in pregnant women. No evidence of teratogenicity was seen in animal reproduction studies with rabeprazole at 13 and 8 times the human exposure at the recommended dose for GERD, in rats and rabbits, respectively (see Animal Data). Changes in bone morphology were observed in offspring of rats treated with oral doses of a different PPI through most of pregnancy and lactation (see Animal Data). Because of these findings, ACIPHEX should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Embryo-fetal developmental studies have been performed in rats at intravenous doses of rabeprazole up to 50 mg/kg/day (plasma AUC of 11.8 μg•hr/mL, about 13 times the human exposure at the recommended oral dose for GERD) and rabbits at intravenous doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (plasma AUC of 7.3 μg•hr/mL, about 8 times the human exposure at the recommended oral dose for GERD) and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to rabeprazole.
Administration of rabeprazole to rats in late gestation and during lactation at an oral dose of 400 mg/kg/day (about 195 times the human oral dose based on mg/m²) resulted in decreases in body weight gain of the pups.
A pre-and postnatal developmental toxicity study in rats with additional endpoints to evaluate bone development was performed with a different PPI at about 3.4 to 57 times an oral human dose on a body surface area basis. Decreased femur length, width and thickness of cortical bone, decreased thickness of the tibial growth plate, and minimal to mild bone marrow hypocellularity were noted at doses of this PPI equal to or greater than 3.4 times an oral human dose on a body surface area basis. Physeal dysplasia in the femur was also observed in offspring after in utero and lactational exposure to the PPI at doses equal to or greater than 33.6 times an oral human dose on a body surface area basis. Effects on maternal bone were observed in pregnant and lactating rats in a pre-and postnatal toxicity study when the PPI was administered at oral doses of 3.4 to 57 times an oral human dose on a body surface area basis. When rats were dosed from gestational day 7 through weaning on postnatal day 21, a statistically significant decrease in maternal femur weight of up to 14% (as compared to placebo treatment) was observed at doses equal to or greater than 33.6 times an oral human dose on a body surface area basis.
It is not known if ACIPHEX is excreted in human milk; however, rabeprazole is present in rat milk. Because many drugs are excreted in milk, caution should be exercised when ACIPHEX is administered to a nursing woman.
Symptomatic GERD in Adolescent Patients Greater or Equal to 12 Years of Age
In a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study, 111 adolescent patients 12 to 16 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of symptomatic GERD, or suspected or endoscopically proven GERD, were randomized and treated with either ACIPHEX 10 mg or ACIPHEX 20 mg once daily for up to 8 weeks for the evaluation of safety and efficacy. The adverse event profile in adolescent patients was similar to that of adults. The related reported adverse reactions that occurred in ≥ 2% of patients were headache (5.4%) and nausea (1.8%). There were no adverse reactions reported in these studies that were not previously observed in adults.
GERD in Pediatric Patients 1 to 11 Years of Age
The use of ACIPHEX for treatment of GERD in pediatric patients 1 to 11 years of age is supported by a randomized, multicenter, double-blind clinical trial which evaluated two dose levels of rabeprazole in 127 pediatric patients with endoscopic and histologic evidence of GERD prior to study treatment. Dosing was determined by body weight: Patients weighing 6.0 to 14.9 kg received either 5 or 10 mg and those weighing 15.0 kg or more received 10 or 20 mg of ACIPHEX Sprinkle daily. After 12 weeks of rabeprazole treatment, 81% of patients demonstrated esophageal mucosal healing on endoscopic assessment. In patients who had esophageal mucosal healing at 12 weeks and elected to continue for 24 more weeks of rabeprazole, 90% retained esophageal mucosal healing at 36 weeks. No prespecified formal hypothesis testing for evaluation of efficacy was conducted. The absence of a placebo group does not allow assessment of sustained efficacy through 36 weeks. There were no adverse reactions reported in this study that were not previously observed in adolescents or adults.
Symptomatic GERD in Infants 1 to 11 Months of Age
Studies conducted do not support the use of ACIPHEX Sprinkle for the treatment of GERD in pediatric patients younger than 1 year of age.
In a randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled withdrawal trial, infants 1 to 11 months of age with a clinical diagnosis of symptomatic GERD, or suspected or endoscopically proven GERD, were treated up to 8 weeks in two treatment periods. In the first treatment period (open-label), 344 infants received 10 mg of ACIPHEX Sprinkle for up to 3 weeks. Infants with clinical response were then eligible to enter the second treatment period, which was double-blind and randomized. Two hundred sixty-eight infants were randomized to receive either placebo or 5 mg or 10 mg ACIPHEX Sprinkle.
This study did not demonstrate efficacy based on assessment of frequency of regurgitation and weight-for-age Z-score. Adverse reactions that occurred in ≥ 5% of patients in any treatment group and with a higher rate than placebo included pyrexia (7%) and increased serum gastrin levels (5%). There were no adverse reactions reported in this study that were not previously observed in adolescents and adults.
Neonates < 1 Month and Preterm Infants < 44 Weeks Corrected Gestational Age
Use of ACIPHEX Sprinkle in neonates is strongly discouraged at this time for the treatment of GERD, based on the risk of prolonged acid suppression and lack of demonstrated safety and effectiveness in neonates.
Based on population pharmacokinetic analysis, the median (range) for the apparent clearance (CL/F) was 1.05 L/h (0.0543-3.44 L/h) in neonates and 4.46 L/h (0.822-12.4 L/h) in patients 1 to 11 months of age following once daily administration of oral ACIPHEX Sprinkle.
Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of ACIPHEX, 19% were 65 years and over, while 4% were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/9/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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