"Researchers have been working to develop a vaccine that provides long-term, reliable protection from malaria. An effective vaccine could protect people living in malaria-endemic regions as well as travelers and military personnel.
(Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed )
Adacel vaccine is a sterile isotonic suspension of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and pertussis antigens adsorbed on aluminum phosphate, for intramuscular injection.
Each 0.5 mL dose contains 5 Lf tetanus toxoid (T), 2 Lf diphtheria toxoid (d), and acellular pertussis antigens [2.5 mcg detoxified pertussis toxin (PT), 5 mcg filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), 3 mcg pertactin (PRN), 5 mcg fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM)].Other ingredients per 0.5 Ml dose include 1.5 mg aluminum phosphate (0.33 mg aluminum) as the adjuvant, ≤ 5 mcg residual formaldehyde, < 50 ng residual glutaraldehyde and 3.3 mg (0.6% v/v) 2-phenoxyethanol (not as a preservative). The antigens are the same as those in DAPTACEL vaccine; however, Adacel vaccine is formulated with reduced quantities of diphtheria and detoxified PT.
The acellular pertussis vaccine components are produced from Bordetella pertussis cultures grown in Stainer-Scholte medium² modified by the addition of casamino acids and dimethylbeta- cyclodextrin. PT, FHA and PRN are isolated separately from the supernatant culture medium. FIM are extracted and co-purified from the bacterial cells. The pertussis antigens are purified by sequential filtration, salt-precipitation, ultrafiltration and chromatography. PT is detoxified with glutaraldehyde, FHA is treated with formaldehyde, and the residual aldehydes are removed by ultrafiltration. The individual antigens are adsorbed onto aluminum phosphate. The tetanus toxin is produced from Clostridium tetani grown in modified Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium without beef heart infusion.3 Tetanus toxin is detoxified with formaldehyde and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and diafiltration. Corynebacterium diphtheriae is grown in modified Mueller's growth medium.4 After purification by ammonium sulfate fractionation, diphtheria toxin is detoxified with formaldehyde and diafiltered.
The adsorbed diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis components are combined with aluminum phosphate (as adjuvant), 2-phenoxyethanol (not as a preservative) and water for injection. Adacel vaccine does not contain a preservative.
In the guinea pig potency test, the tetanus component induces at least 2 neutralizing units/mL of serum and the diphtheria component induces at least 0.5 neutralizing units/mL of serum. The potency of the acellular pertussis vaccine components is evaluated by the antibody response of immunized mice to detoxified PT, FHA, PRN and FIM as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids are individually adsorbed onto aluminum phosphate.
2 Stainer DW, et al. A simple chemically defined medium for the production of phase I Bordetella pertussis. J Gen Microbiol 1970;63:211-20.
3 Mueller JH, et al. Variable factors influencing the production of tetanus toxin. J Bacteriol 1954;67(3):271-7.
4 Stainer DW. Production of diphtheria toxin. In: Manclark CR, editor. Proceedings of an informal consultation on the World Health Organization requirements for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and combined vaccines. United States Public Health Service, Bethesda, MD. DHHS 91-1174. 1991. p. 7-11.
What are the possible side effects of this vaccine (Adacel (Tdap), Boostrix (Tdap))?
You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.
Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. If you ever need to receive a booster dose, you will need to tell your doctor if the previous shot caused any side effects.
Becoming infected with diphtheria, pertussis, or tetanus is much more dangerous to your health than receiving this vaccine. However, like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely...
What are the precautions when taking tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed (Adacel)?
Before receiving this vaccination, tell your health care professional if you are allergic to it; or to any other vaccines; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients (such as latex), which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before receiving this vaccine, tell your health care professional your medical history, especially of: nervous system disorders (e.g., seizures, encephalopathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome), current illness/infection, bleeding disorders, immune system disorders (e.g., autoimmune disorders, radiation treatment), vaccination history including previous reactions to any vaccines.
This vaccine should be used only when clearly needed during pregnancy. Discuss the risks...
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/6/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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