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ADASUVE can cause bronchospasm that has the potential to lead to respiratory distress and respiratory arrest [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Administer ADASUVE only in an enrolled healthcare facility that has immediate access on-site to equipment and personnel trained to manage acute bronchospasm, including advanced airway management (intubation and mechanical ventilation) [see BOXED WARNING].
Prior to administering ADASUVE, screen patients regarding a current diagnosis or history of asthma, COPD, and other lung disease associated with bronchospasm, acute respiratory symptoms or signs, current use of medications to treat airways disease, such as asthma or COPD; and examine patients (including chest auscultation) for respiratory abnormalities (e.g., wheezing) [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Monitor patients for symptoms and signs of bronchospasm (i.e., vital signs and chest auscultation) at least every 15 minutes for a minimum of one hour following treatment with ADASUVE [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. ADASUVE can cause sedation, which can mask the symptoms of bronchospasm.
Because clinical trials in patients with asthma or COPD demonstrated that the degree of bronchospasm, as indicated by changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), was greater following a second dose of ADASUVE, limit ADASUVE use to a single dose within a 24 hour period.
Advise all patients of the risk of bronchospasm. Advise them to inform the healthcare professional if they develop any breathing problems such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, or cough following treatment with ADASUVE.
ADASUVE REMS to Mitigate Bronchospasm
Because of the risk of bronchospasm, ADASUVE is available only through a restricted program under a REMS called the ADASUVE REMS. [see BOXED WARNING] Required components of the ADASUVE REMS are:
- Healthcare facilities that dispense and administer ADASUVE must be enrolled and comply with the REMS requirements. Certified healthcare facilities must have on-site access to equipment and personnel trained to provide advance airway management, including intubation and mechanical ventilation.
- Wholesalers and distributors that distribute ADASUVE must enroll in the program and distribute only to enrolled healthcare facilities.
Further information is available at www.adasuverems.com or 888-970-7367.
Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at increased risk of death. Analyses of 17 placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the cases of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies can be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. ADASUVE is not approved for the treatment of elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis [see BOXED WARNING].
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Antipsychotic drugs can cause a potentially fatal symptom complex termed Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS). Clinical manifestations of NMS include hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Associated features can include elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentration, rhabdomyolysis, elevated serum and urine myoglobin concentration, and renal failure. NMS did not occur in the ADASUVE clinical program.
The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. It is important to consider the presence of other serious medical conditions (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, heat stroke, primary CNS pathology, central anticholinergic toxicity, extrapyramidal symptoms, or drug fever).
The management of NMS should include: 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs that may contribute to the underlying disorder, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for NMS.
If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported.
Hypotension and Syncope
ADASUVE can cause hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, and syncope. Use ADASUVE with caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease, heart failure or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, or conditions that would predispose patients to hypotension (dehydration, hypovolemia, or treatment with antihypertensive medications or other drugs that affect blood pressure or reduce heart rate).
In the presence of severe hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy, the preferred drugs may be norepinephrine or phenylephrine. Epinephrine should not be used, because beta stimulation may worsen hypotension in the setting of ADASUVE-induced partial alpha blockade.
In short-term (24-hour) placebo-controlled trials of patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder, hypotension occurred in 0.4% and 0.8% in the ADASUVE 10 mg and placebo groups, respectively. There were no cases of orthostatic hypotension, postural symptoms, presyncope or syncope. A systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mm Hg with a decrease of ≥ 20 mm Hg occurred in 1.5% and 0.8% of the ADASUVE 10 mg and placebo groups, respectively. A diastolic blood pressure ≤ 50 mm Hg with a decrease of ≥ 15 mm Hg occurred in 0.8% and 0.4% of the ADASUVE 10 mg and placebo groups, respectively.
In 5 Phase 1 studies in normal volunteers, the incidence of hypotension was 3% and 0% in ADASUVE 10 mg and the placebo groups, respectively. The incidence of syncope or presyncope in normal volunteers was 2.3% and 0% in the ADASUVE and placebo groups, respectively. In normal volunteers, a systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mm Hg with a decrease of ≥ 20 mm Hg occurred in 5.3% and 1.1% in the ADASUVE and placebo groups, respectively. A diastolic blood pressure ≤ 50 mm Hg with a decrease of ≥ 15 mm Hg occurred in 7.5% and 3.3% in the ADASUVE and placebo groups, respectively.
ADASUVE lowers the seizure threshold. Seizures have occurred in patients treated with oral loxapine. Seizures can occur in epileptic patients even during antiepileptic drug maintenance therapy. In short term (24 hour), placebo-controlled trials of ADASUVE, there were no reports of seizures.
Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment
ADASUVE can impair judgment, thinking, and motor skills. In short-term, placebo-controlled trials, sedation and/or somnolence were reported in 12% and 10% in the ADASUVE and placebo groups, respectively. No patients discontinued treatment because of sedation or somnolence.
The potential for cognitive and motor impairment is increased when ADASUVE is administered concurrently with other CNS depressants [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Caution patients about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that therapy with ADASUVE does not affect them adversely.
Cerebrovascular Reactions, Including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis
In placebo-controlled trials with atypical antipsychotics in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, there was a higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse reactions (stroke and transient ischemic attacks), including fatalities, compared to placebo-treated patients. ADASUVE is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see BOXED WARNING].
Anticholinergic Reactions Including Exacerbation of Glaucoma and Urinary Retention
ADASUVE has anticholinergic activity, and it has the potential to cause anticholinergic adverse reactions including exacerbation of glaucoma or urinary retention. The concomitant use of other anticholinergic drugs (e.g., antiparkinson drugs) with ADASUVE could have additive effects.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide)
Advise patients and caregivers that there is a risk of bronchospasm. Advise patients to inform their healthcare professional if they develop any breathing problems such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, or cough following treatment with ADASUVE [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Interference with Cognitive and Motor Performance
Caution patients and caregivers about performing activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating hazardous machinery or operating a motor vehicle, until they are reasonably certain that ADASUVE has not affected them adversely [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Caution patients and caregivers about the potential for sedation, especially when used concurrently with other CNS depressants (e.g., alcohol, opioid analgesics, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, sedative/hypnotics, muscle relaxants, and/or illicit CNS depressants).
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Patients and caregivers should be counseled that a potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as NMS has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs. Signs and symptoms of NMS include hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Hypotension and Syncope
Advise patients and caregivers of the risk of hypotension or orthostatic hypotension (symptoms include feeling dizzy or lightheaded upon standing) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Counsel patients and caregivers about the potential risks of anticholinergic reactions, such as exacerbation of glaucoma and urinary retention [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Counsel patients and caregivers regarding the potential risk to the fetus or neonate [see Use in Specific Populations].
Counsel patients and caregivers regarding the potential risk to the infant [see Use in Specific Populations].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No adequate studies have been conducted.
Loxapine did not cause mutation or chromosomal aberration when tested in vitro and in vivo. Loxapine was negative in the Ames gene mutation assay, the human peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay, and in the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay up to 40 mg/kg (20-fold the MRHD on mg/m² basis).
Loxapine metabolite 8-OH-loxapine was not mutagenic in the in vitro Ames reverse mutation assay and was not clastogenic in the in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay.
Impairment of Fertility
Loxapine had no effects on fertility or early embryonic development in male rats or in male and female rabbits following oral administration. Mating was decreased in female rats because these animals were in persistent diestrus, an expected pharmacologic effect for this class of compounds. This occurred at doses approximately 0.2- and 1-fold the MRHD of 10 mg/day on a mg/m² basis.
Use In Specific Populations
In general, no dose adjustment for ADASUVE is required on the basis of a patient's age, gender, race, smoking status, hepatic function, or renal function.
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of ADASUVE use in pregnant women. Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. Loxapine, the active ingredient in ADASUVE, has demonstrated increased embryofetal toxicity and death in rat fetuses and offspring exposed to doses approximately 0.5-fold the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m² basis. ADASUVE should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, and feeding disorders in these neonates. These complications have varied in severity; in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, but in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization.
In rats, embryofetal toxicity (increased fetal resorptions, reduced weights, and hydronephrosis with hydroureter) was observed following oral administration of loxapine during the period of organogenesis at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day. This dose is equivalent to the MRHD of 10 mg/day on a mg/m² basis. In addition, fetal toxicity (increased prenatal death, decreased postnatal survival, reduced fetal weights, delayed ossification, and/or distended renal pelvis with reduced or absent papillae) was observed following oral administration of loxapine from mid-pregnancy through weaning at doses of 0.6 mg/kg and higher. This dose is approximately half the MRHD of 10 mg/day on a mg/m² basis.
No teratogenicity was observed following oral administration of loxapine during the period of organogenesis in the rat, rabbit, or dog at doses up to 12, 60, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. These doses are approximately 12-, 120-, and 32-fold the MRHD of 10 mg/day on a mg/m² basis, respectively.
It is not known whether ADASUVE is present in human milk. Loxapine and its metabolites are present in the milk of lactating dogs. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from
ADASUVE, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue ADASUVE, taking in to account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The safety and effectiveness of ADASUVE in pediatric patients have not been established.
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. ADASUVE is not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis. Placebo-controlled studies of ADASUVE in patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder did not include patients over 65 years of age.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/14/2013
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