"Dec. 10 2012 -- Teens diagnosed with ADHD are likely to have an array of issues as adults, including problems with physical and mental health, work, and finances, according to new research.
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Drug Abuse And Dependence
Adderall® (Dextroamphetamine Saccharate, Amphetamine Aspartate, Dextroamphetamine Sulfate and Amphetamine Sulfate Tablets) is a Schedule II controlled substance.
Amphetamines have been extensively abused. Tolerance, extreme psychological dependence, and severe social disability have occurred. There are reports of patients who have increased the dosage to levels many times higher than recommended. Abrupt cessation following prolonged high dosage administration results in extreme fatigue and mental depression; changes are also noted on the sleep EEG. Manifestations of chronic intoxication with amphetamines include severe dermatoses, marked insomnia, irritability, hyperactivity, and personality changes. The most severe manifestation of chronic intoxication is psychosis, often clinically indistinguishable from schizophrenia.
Read the Adderall (amphetamine, dextroamphetamine mixed salts) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Urinary Acidifying Agents
(ammonium chloride, sodium acid phosphate, etc.) increase the concentration of the ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby increasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents lower blood levels and efficacy of amphetamines.
Adrenergic blockers are inhibited by amphetamines.
Gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents (sodium bicarbonate, etc.) increase absorption of amphetamines. Coadministration of Adderall® and gastrointestinal alkalizing agents, such as antacids, should be avoided. Urinary alkalinizing agents (acetazolamide, some thiazides) increase the concentration of the non-ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby decreasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents increase blood levels and therefore potentiate the actions of amphetamines.
Amphetamines may enhance the activity of tricyclic or sympathomimetic agents; d-amphetamine with desipramine or protriptyline and possibly other tricyclics cause striking and sustained increases in the concentration of d-amphetamine in the brain; cardiovascular effects can be potentiated.
MAOI antidepressants, as well as a metabolite of furazolidone, slow amphetamine metabolism. This slowing potentiates amphetamines, increasing their effect on the release of norepinephrine and other monoamines from adrenergic nerve endings; this can cause headaches and other signs of hypertensive crisis. A variety of neurological toxic effects and malignant hyperpyrexia can occur, sometimes with fatal results.
Amphetamines may antagonize the hypotensive effects of antihypertensives.
Chlorpromazine blocks dopamine and norepinephrine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines, and can be used to treat amphetamine poisoning.
Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of ethosuximide.
Haloperidol blocks dopamine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines.
Amphetamines potentiate the analgesic effect of meperidine.
Urinary excretion of amphetamines is increased, and efficacy is reduced, by acidifying agents used in methenamine therapy.
Amphetamines enhance the adrenergic effect of norepinephrine.
Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenobarbital; coadministration of phenobarbital may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action.
Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenytoin; coadministration of phenytoin may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action.
In cases of propoxyphene overdosage, amphetamine CNS stimulation is potentiated and fatal convulsions can occur.
Proton Pump Inhibitors
PPIs act on proton pumps by blocking acid production, thereby reducing gastric acidity. When Adderall XR® (20 mg single-dose) was administered concomitantly with the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole (40 mg once daily for 14 days), the median T of d-amphetamine was decreased by 1.25 hours (from 4 to 2.75 hours), and the median T of l-amphetamine was decreased by 2.5 hours (from 5.5 to 3 hours), compared to Adderall® XR administered alone. The AUC and C of each moiety were unaffected. Therefore, coadministration of Adderall® and proton pump inhibitors should be monitored for changes in clinical effect.
Amphetamines inhibit the hypotensive effect of veratrum alkaloids.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
Read the Adderall Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/27/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Adderall Information
Adderall - User Reviews
Adderall User Reviews
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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
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