ADHD in Children (cont.)
Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD
Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children) facts
- What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
- What are risk factors and causes of ADHD in children?
- What are signs and symptoms of ADHD in children?
- Are there ADHD tests? How do physicians diagnose ADHD in children?
- What are the treatments for ADHD in children? What are possible side effects of ADHD medications?
- What are complications and the prognosis of ADHD in children?
- Is it possible to prevent ADHD in children?
- What is the latest research on ADHD in children?
- Are there support groups for children with ADHD?
- Where can people find more information on ADHD in children?
- ADHD FAQs
- Find a local Psychiatrist in your town
Are there ADHD tests? How do physicians diagnose ADHD in children?
In order for a child to receive an ADHD diagnosis, he or she must demonstrate six symptoms of inattention or six symptoms of combined hyperactivity and impulsivity, while an older teen or adult need only exhibit five of either group of symptoms. The symptoms should start before 12 years of age, be present in more than one setting (for example, home and school), be severe enough to cause problems for the individual, and not be able to be better explained by another condition for the diagnosis of ADHD. There are three kinds of ADHD: predominately inattentive presentation, predominately hyperactive/impulsive presentation, and the combined (inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive) presentation.
Many health-care professionals, including licensed mental-health therapists, primary-care providers, psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric nurses, and social workers may help make the diagnosis of ADHD in children. One of these professionals will likely conduct or refer for an extensive medical interview and physical examination as part of the assessment. One of the key aspects of evaluating children and teens for ADHD is determining whether the behaviors being exhibited are part of normal behavior or of ADHD. Individuals with ADHD also often have a learning disability. This illness is sometimes associated with a number of other mental-health problems, like the effects of trauma, as well as depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders, Asperger's syndrome, and other autism-spectrum disorders. Childhood ADHD is also often associated with other behavior disorders, like conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Therefore, the health-care professional will likely screen for signs of depression, manic depression, anxiety, and other mental-health symptoms. The symptoms of ADHD may also be the result of a number of medical conditions or can be a side effect of various medications. For this reason, health-care professionals often perform routine laboratory tests during the initial evaluation to rule out other causes of symptoms. Occasionally, an X-ray, scan, or other imaging study may be needed. As part of this examination, the sufferer may be asked a series of questions from a standardized questionnaire or self-test to help establish the diagnosis. Some ADHD symptom checklists for children include the Vanderbilt Rating Scale and the Connors' Rating Scales.
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