ADHD Medications (cont.)
Annette (Gbemudu) Ogbru, PharmD, MBA
Dr. Gbemudu received her B.S. in Biochemistry from Nova Southeastern University, her PharmD degree from University of Maryland, and MBA degree from University of Baltimore. She completed a one year post-doctoral fellowship with Rutgers University and Bristol Myers Squibb.
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.
In this Article
- What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
- List of ADHD medication for children
- ADHD medications for children under the age of 3
- ADHD medications for children aged 6 years or older
- Why are ADHD medications prescribed for children?
- What are the types of ADHD medications for children?
- What are the non-stimulating ADHD medications for children?
- What is the best type of ADHD mediation for children?
- General treatment guidelines from The American Academy of Pediatrics
- General considerations for choosing a stimulant
- Non-stimulant ADHD medications
- Are there liquid ADHD medications for children?
- What are ADHD medication side effects in children
- What are the warnings and precautions when using ADHD medications in children
- Contraindications for ADHD medications
- Black box warnings for ADHD medications
- ADHD medication for children with autism
General treatment guidelines from The American Academy of Pediatrics
For preschool-aged children (4 to 5 years old): Evidence-based behavior therapy is recommended. However, medication may be added if there is no improvement. Methylphenidate is recommended over amphetamines or non-stimulants.
For school-aged children (6 to 11 years old): FDA-approved ADHD medications and/or behavior therapy are recommended. A stimulant is recommended over atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine.
General considerations for choosing a stimulant
Consider low-dose short-acting medications for children younger than 6 years old to minimize dose-related side effects.
Long-acting medications may be used in children over 6 years, starting at a low dose and titrating for maximum efficacy while minimizing side effects. Long-acting or extended-release dosage forms may improve adherence and are less likely to be misused.
A combination of long-acting and short-acting medications may provide extra coverage when needed such as for completion of homework after school.
Non-stimulant ADHD medications
Atomoxetine may be preferred for patients with a history of substance abuse. Clonidine or guanfacine may be chosen if there are unacceptable side effects, major comorbidities, or a poor response to stimulants or atomoxetine.
For adolescents (12 to 18 years of age): FDA-approved ADHD medications and behavior therapy are recommended, preferably together.
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