ADHD Medications (cont.)
Annette (Gbemudu) Ogbru, PharmD, MBA
Dr. Gbemudu received her B.S. in Biochemistry from Nova Southeastern University, her PharmD degree from University of Maryland, and MBA degree from University of Baltimore. She completed a one year post-doctoral fellowship with Rutgers University and Bristol Myers Squibb.
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.
In this Article
- What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
- List of ADHD medication for children
- ADHD medications for children under the age of 3
- ADHD medications for children aged 6 years or older
- Why are ADHD medications prescribed for children?
- What are the types of ADHD medications for children?
- What are the non-stimulating ADHD medications for children?
- What is the best type of ADHD mediation for children?
- General treatment guidelines from The American Academy of Pediatrics
- General considerations for choosing a stimulant
- Non-stimulant ADHD medications
- Are there liquid ADHD medications for children?
- What are ADHD medication side effects in children
- What are the warnings and precautions when using ADHD medications in children
- Contraindications for ADHD medications
- Black box warnings for ADHD medications
- ADHD medication for children with autism
Are there liquid ADHD medications for children?
- Methylin (methylphenidate oral solution)
- ProCentra (dextroamphetamine oral solution)
- Quillivant XR (methylphenidate extended release powder for oral suspension)
What are ADHD medication side effects in children?
ADHD medication side effects in children include decreased appetite, headache, anxiety, nausea, dizziness, vomiting and abdominal pain. Insomnia, dizziness, and restlessness are also common. Other side effects include weight loss, anorexia and pruritus (itching).
What are the warnings and precautions when using ADHD medications in children?
There are several warnings and precautions related to the use of ADHD medications in children.
Contraindications for ADHD medications
Administration of stimulants can lead to physical and psychological drug dependence. Therefore methamphetamine is contraindicated in patients with a history of alcoholism.
Dexmethylphenidate and methylphenidate are contraindicated in patients with anxiety since it can worsen this condition.
Dextroamphetamine/amphetamine, dextroamphetamine and methamphetamine are contraindicated for use in patients with arteriosclerosis due to the risk of sudden death.
Methamphetamine and methylphenidate are contraindicated for use in patients with cardiac disease. These stimulants can cause increases in blood pressure and heart rate and can lead to myocardial infarction and sudden unexplained death (SUD). Methamphetamine also has a Black Box Warning for this reason.
Dextroamphetamine/amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, dexmethylphenidate, methamphetamine and methylphenidate are contraindicated in people with glaucoma due to the risk of visual disturbances and blurred vision. This is because stimulants can block the outflow of aqueous humor (eye fluid) and increase intraocular pressure.
Atomoxetine is contraindicated in closed-angle glaucoma due to the risk of mydriasis (pupil dilation).
Methylphenidate (Metadate CD) contains sucrose and is contraindicated in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption, and sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.
Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system by dextroamphetamine/amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine and methylphenidate can cause cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore they are contraindicated for use in patients with hyperthyroidism.
Atomoxetine, dextroamphetamine/amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, dexmethylphenidate, lisdexamfetamine and methamphetamine should not be combined with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or used within 14 days of stopping an MAOI. Such combinations can cause a hypertensive crisis.
Atomoxetine is contraindicated in patients with pheochromocytoma or a history of pheochromocytoma. Atomoxetine can cause serious reactions, including increased blood pressure and tachyarrhythmia in this patient population.
Dextroamphetamine/amphetamine, dextroamphetamine and methamphetamine are contraindicated in patients with a history of substance abuse since stimulants can cause physical and psychological drug dependence. Dextroamphetamine/amphetamine and dextroamphetamine also have a Black Box Warning for this reason.
Dexmethylphenidate and methylphenidate are contraindicated in patients with tics or Tourette's syndrome (including a family history of Tourette's syndrome) since they may worsen these conditions.
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