"SAN FRANCISCO â€” Tumor-treating fields (TTFields, Novocure) therapy, already approved for use in glioblastoma, has now shown benefit in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
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Doxorubicin should be administered only under the supervision of qualified physicians experienced in the use of cytotoxic therapy. Patients should recover from acute toxicities of prior cytotoxic treatment (such as stomatitis, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and generalized infections) before beginning treatment with doxorubicin. Also, initial treatment with doxorubicin should be preceded by a careful baseline assessment of blood counts; serum levels of total bilirubin, AST, and creatinine; and cardiac function as measured by left ventricular ejection function (LVEF). Patients should be carefully monitored during treatment for possible clinical complications due to myelosuppression. Supportive care may be necessary for the treatment of severe neutropenia and severe infectious complications. Monitoring for potential cardiotoxicity is also important, especially with greater cumulative exposure to doxorubicin. Doxorubicin may potentiate the toxicity of other anticancer therapies (see PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).
Cardiotoxicity is a known risk of anthracycline treatment. Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity may be manifested by early (or acute) or late (delayed) events. Early cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin consists mainly of sinus tachycardia and/or electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities such as non-specific ST-T wave changes.
Tachyarrhythmias, including premature ventricular contractions and ventricular tachycardia, bradycardia, as well as atrioventricular and bundle-branch block have also been reported. These effects do not usually predict subsequent development of delayed cardiotoxicity, are rarely of clinical importance, and are generally not considered an indication for the suspension of doxorubicin treatment.
Delayed cardiotoxicity usually develops late in the course of therapy with doxorubicin or within 2 to 3 months after treatment termination, but later events, several months to years after completion of treatment, have also been reported. Delayed cardiomyopathy is manifested by a reduction in LVEF and/or signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure (CHF) such as tachycardia, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, dependent edema, cardiomegaly and hepatomegaly, oliguria, ascites, pleural effusion, and gallop rhythm. Subacute effects such as pericarditis/myocarditis have also been reported. Life-threatening CHF is the most severe form of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy and represents the cumulative dose-limiting toxicity of the drug.
The probability of developing impaired myocardial function, based on a combined index of signs, symptoms and decline in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is estimated to be 1 to 2% at a total cumulative dose of 300 mg/m2 of doxorubicin, 3 to 5% at a dose of 400 mg/m2, 5 to 8% at a dose of 450 mg/m2 and 6 to 20% at a dose of 500 mg/m2 given in a schedule of a bolus injection once every 3 weeks. In a retrospective review, the probability of developing congestive heart failure was reported to be 5/168 (3%) at a cumulative dose of 430 mg/m2 of doxorubicin, 8/110 (7%) at 575 mg/m2, and 3/14 (21%) at 728 mg/m2. In a prospective study of doxorubicin in combination with cyclophosphamide, fluorouracil and/or vincristine in patients with breast cancer or small cell lung cancer, the probability of CHF at various cumulative doses of doxorubicin was 1.5% at 300 mg/m2, 4.9% at 400 mg/m2, 7.7% at 450 mg/m2 and 20.5% at 500 mg/m2. The risk of developing CHF increases rapidly with increasing total cumulative doses of doxorubicin in excess of 400 mg/m2.
Cardiotoxicity may occur at lower doses in patients with prior mediastinal/pericardial irradiation, concomitant use of other cardiotoxic drugs, doxorubicin exposure at an early age, and advanced age. Data also suggest that pre-existing heart disease is a cofactor for increased risk of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. In such cases, cardiac toxicity may occur at doses lower than the recommended cumulative dose of doxorubicin. Studies have suggested that concomitant administration of doxorubicin and calcium channel entry blockers may increase the risk of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. The total dose of doxorubicin administered to the individual patient should also take into account previous or concomitant therapy with related compounds such as daunorubicin, idarubicin and mitoxantrone. Although not formally tested, it is probable that the toxicity of doxorubicin and other anthracyclines or anthracenediones is additive. Cardiomyopathy and/or congestive heart failure may be encountered several months or years after discontinuation of doxorubicin therapy.
The risk of acute manifestations of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in pediatric patients may be as much or lower than in adults. Pediatric patients appear to be at particular risk for developing delayed cardiac toxicity in that doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy impairs myocardial growth as pediatric patients mature, subsequently leading to possible development of congestive heart failure during early adulthood. As many as 40% of pediatric patients may have subclinical cardiac dysfunction and 5 to 10% of pediatric patients may develop congestive heart failure on long-term follow-up. This late cardiac toxicity may be related to the dose of doxorubicin. The longer the length of follow-up, the greater the increase in the detection rate. Treatment of doxorubicin-induced congestive heart failure includes the use of digitalis, diuretics, after load reducers such as angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, low salt diet, and bed rest. Such intervention may relieve symptoms and improve the functional status of the patient.
Monitoring Cardiac Function. The risk of serious cardiac impairment may be decreased through regular monitoring of LVEF during the course of treatment with prompt discontinuation of doxorubicin at the first sign of impaired function. The preferred method for assessment of cardiac function is evaluation of LVEF measured by multi-gated radionuclide angiography (MUGA) or echocardiography (ECHO). An ECG may also be done. A baseline cardiac evaluation with a MUGA scan or an ECHO is recommended, especially in patients with risk factors for increased cardiac toxicity. Repeated MUGA or ECHO determinations of LVEF should be performed, particularly with higher, cumulative anthracycline doses. The technique used for assessment should be consistent through follow-up. In patients with risk factors, particularly prior anthracycline or anthracenedione use, the monitoring of cardiac function must be particularly strict and the risk-benefit of continuing treatment with doxorubicin in patients with impaired cardiac function must be carefully evaluated.
Endomyocardial biopsy is recognized as the most sensitive diagnostic tool to detect anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy; however, this invasive examination is not practically performed on a routine basis. ECG changes such as dysrhythmias, a reduction of the QRS voltage, or a prolongation beyond normal limits of the systolic time interval may be indicative of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy, but ECG is not a sensitive or specific method for following anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity.
Pediatric patients are at increased risk for developing delayed cardiotoxicity following doxorubicin administration and therefore a follow-up cardiac evaluation is recommended periodically to monitor for this delayed cardiotoxicity.
In adults, a 10% decline in LVEF to below the lower limit of normal or an absolute LVEF of 45%, or a 20% decline in LVEF at any level is indicative of deterioration in cardiac function. In pediatric patients, deterioration in cardiac function during or after the completion of therapy with doxorubicin is indicated by a drop in fractional shortening (FS) by an absolute value of 10 percentile units or below 29%, and a decline in LVEF of ≥ 10 percentile units or an LVEF below 55%. In general, if test results indicate deterioration in cardiac function associated with doxorubicin, the benefit of continued therapy should be carefully evaluated against the risk of producing irreversible cardiac damage. Acute life-threatening arrhythmias have been reported to occur during or within a few hours after doxorubicin administration.
As with other cytotoxic agents, doxorubicin may produce myelosuppression.
Myelosuppression requires careful monitoring. Total and differential WBC, red blood cell (RBC), and platelet counts should be assessed before and during each cycle of therapy with doxorubicin. A dose-dependent, reversible leukopenia and/or granulocytopenia (neutropenia) are the predominant manifestations of doxorubicin hematologic toxicity and is the most common acute dose-limiting toxicity of this drug. With the recommended dose schedule, leukopenia is usually transient, reaching its nadir 10 to 14 days after treatment with recovery usually occurring by the 21st day. Thrombocytopenia and anemia may also occur. Clinical consequences of severe myelosuppression include fever, infections, sepsis/septicemia, septic shock, hemorrhage, tissue hypoxia, or death.
The occurrence of secondary AML or MDS has been reported most commonly in patients treated with chemotherapy regimens containing anthracyclines (including doxorubicin) and DNA-damaging antineoplastic agents, in combination with radiotherapy, when patients have been heavily pretreated with cytotoxic drugs, or when doses of anthracyclines have been escalated. Such cases generally have a 1-3 year latency period. The rate of developing secondary AML or MDS has been estimated in an analysis of 8563 patients with early breast cancer treated in 6 studies conducted by the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP), including NSABP B-15. Patients in these studies received standard doses of doxorubicin and standard or escalated doses of cyclophosphamide (AC) adjuvant chemotherapy and were followed for 61,810 patient years. Among 4483 such patients who received conventional doses of AC, 11 cases of AML or MDS were identified, for an incidence of 0.32 cases per 1000 patient years (95% CI 0.16-0.57) and a cumulative incidence at 5 years of 0.21% (95% CI 0.11-0.41%). In another analysis of 1474 patients with breast cancer who received adjuvant treatment with doxorubicin-containing regimens in clinical trials conducted at University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the incidence was estimated at 1.5% at 10 years. In both experiences, patients who received regimens with higher cyclophosphamide dosages, who received radiotherapy, or who were aged 50 or older had an increased risk of secondary AML or MDS.
Pediatric patients are also at risk of developing secondary AML.
Effects at Site of Injection
Phlebosclerosis may result from an injection into a small vessel or from repeated injections into the same vein. Following the recommended administration procedures may minimize the risk of phlebitis/thrombophlebitis at the injection site (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Instruction for Use/Handling).
On intravenous administration of doxorubicin, extravasation may occur with or without an accompanying stinging or burning sensation, even if blood returns well on aspiration of the infusion needle. If any signs or symptoms of extravasation have occurred, the injection or infusion should be immediately terminated and restarted in another vein (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Since metabolism and excretion of doxorubicin occurs predominantly by the hepatobiliary route, toxicity of recommended doses of doxorubicin can be enhanced by hepatic impairment; therefore, prior to individual dosing, evaluation of hepatic function is recommended using conventional laboratory tests such as SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Pregnancy Category D
Doxorubicin can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Doxorubicin was teratogenic and embryotoxic at doses of 0.8 mg/kg/day (about 1/13 the recommended human dose on a body surface area basis) when administered during the period of organogenesis in rats. Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity were also seen using discrete periods of treatment. The most susceptible was the 6- to 9-day gestation period at doses of 1.25 mg/kg/day and greater. Characteristic malformations included esophageal and intestinal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula, hypoplasia of the urinary bladder and cardiovascular anomalies. Doxorubicin was embryotoxic (increase in embryofetal deaths) and abortifacient at 0.4 mg/kg/day (about 1/14 the recommended human dose on a body surface area basis) in rabbits when administered during the period of organogenesis.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. If doxorubicin is to be used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant during therapy, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing age should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant.
Doxorubicin is not an anti-microbial agent. Doxorubicin is emetigenic. Antiemetics may reduce nausea and vomiting; prophylactic use of antiemetics should be considered before administration of doxorubicin, particularly when given in conjunction with other emetigenic drugs.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with doxorubicin. Secondary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) have been reported in patients treated with doxorubicin-containing combination chemotherapy regimens (see WARNINGS). Pediatric patients treated with doxorubicin or other topoisomerase II inhibitors are at risk for developing acute myelogenous leukemia and other neoplasms. Doxorubicin was mutagenic in the in vitro Ames assay, and clastogenic in multiple in vitro assays (CHO cell, V79 hamster cell, human lymphoblast, and SCE assays) and the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.
Doxorubicin decreased fertility in female rats at the doses of 0.05 and 0.2 mg/kg/day (about 1/200 and 1/50 the recommended human dose on a body surface area basis) when administered from 14 days before mating through late gestation period. A single i.v. dose of doxorubicin at 0.1 mg/kg (about 1/100 the recommended human dose on a body surface area basis) was toxic to male reproductive organs producing testicular atrophy and oligospermia in rats. Doxorubicin is mutagenic as it induced DNA damage in rabbit spermatozoa and dominant lethal mutations in mice. Therefore, doxorubicin may potentially induce chromosomal damage in human spermatozoa. Oligospermia or azoospermia were evidenced in men treated with doxorubicin, mainly in combination therapies. Men undergoing doxorubicin treatment should use effective contraceptive methods.
Doxorubicin was toxic to male reproductive organs in animal studies, producing testicular atrophy, diffuse degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, and hypospermia. Doxorubicin is mutagenic as it induces DNA damage in rabbit spermatozoa and dominant lethal mutations in mice. Therefore, doxorubicin can potentially induce chromosomal damage in human spermatozoa. Oligospermia or azoospermia were evidenced in men treated with doxorubicin, mainly in combination therapies. This effect may be permanent. However, sperm counts have been reported to return to normal levels in some instances. This may occur several years after the end of the therapy. Men undergoing doxorubicin treatment should use effective contraceptive methods.
In women, doxorubicin may cause infertility during the time of drug administration. Doxorubicin may cause amenorrhea. Ovulation and menstruation may return after termination of therapy, although premature menopause can occur. Recovery of menses is related to age at treatment.
Secondary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) have been reported in patients treated with anthracycline-containing adjuvant combination chemotherapy regimens (see WARNINGS, Hematologic).
Pregnancy Category D
Doxorubicin and its major metabolite, doxorubicinol, have been detected in the milk of at least one lactating patient (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics). Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from doxorubicin, mothers should be advised to discontinue nursing during doxorubicin therapy.
Pediatric patients are at increased risk for developing delayed cardiotoxicity. Follow-up cardiac evaluations are recommended periodically to monitor for this delayed cardiotoxicity (see WARNINGS). Doxorubicin, as a component of intensive chemotherapy regimens administered to pediatric patients, may contribute to prepubertal growth failure. It may also contribute to gonadal impairment, which is usually temporary. Pediatric patients treated with doxorubicin or other topoisomerase II inhibitors are at a risk for developing acute myelogenous leukemia and other neoplasms. Pediatric patients receiving concomitant doxorubicin and actinomycin-D have manifested acute "recall" pneumonitis at variable times after local radiation therapy.
An estimated 4600 patients who were 65 and over were included in the reported clinical experience of doxorubicin use for various indications. No overall differences in safety and effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. The decision to use doxorubicin in the treatment of older patients should be based upon a consideration of overall performance status and concurrent illnesses, in addition to age of the individual patient.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/11/2008
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