February 5, 2016
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Adult ADHD (cont.)

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What is the prognosis of adult ADHD?

The prognosis for ADHD individuals tends to be influenced by the severity of symptoms, intelligence scores, whether or not the ADHD sufferer has other mental-health conditions, as well as the person's family issues, such as parental mental-health problems, family problems, socioeconomic status, and if the person with ADHD receives treatment. Stimulant treatment of ADHD improves the prognosis for adults, in that it decreases the risk for developing other psychiatric problems and for failing in school.

Is it possible to prevent adult ADHD?

Studies indicate that breastfeeding up to 6 months of age may help protect individuals from developing ADHD. As environmental and social insults like maternal drug use, medical, and emotional issues are risk factors for developing ADHD, prevention or treatment of those issues can help prevent ADHD. Also, early treatment of children with ADHD can decrease the condition's impact on the person's life as they move into adulthood.

Are support groups available for those with adult ADHD?

ADHD and You

CHADD (Children and Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)

Daily Strength

Where can people find additional information on adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

American Counseling Association

American Psychiatric Association

American Psychological Association

National Association of Social Workers

National Mental Health Association


American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, Virginia: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.

Arnold, V.K., D. Feifel, C.Q. Earl, et al. "A 9-Week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-finding study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of modafinil as treatment for adults with ADHD." Journal of Attention Disorders May 2012.

Baker, A., Lee, N.K. & Jenner, L. (Eds) (2004). Models of intervention and care for psychostimulant users, 2nd Edition, National Drug Strategy Monograph Series No. 51.

Biederman, J., M.C. Monuteaux, T. Spencer, et al. "Do stimulants protect against psychiatric disorders in youth with ADHD? A 10-year follow-up study." Pediatrics 124.1 July 2009: 71-78.

Bussing, R., D.M. Mason, L. Bell, P. Porter, and C. Garvan. "Adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a diverse community sample." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 49.6 June 2010: 595-605.

Clay, R.A. "Easing ADHD without meds." Monitor on Psychology 44.2 Feb. 2013.

Conners, C.K., D. Erhardt, J.N. Epstein, et al. "Self-ratings of ADHD symptoms in adults I: Factor structure and normative data." Journal of Attention Disorders 3.3 Oct. 1999: 141-151.

Curatolo, P., E. D'Agati, and R. Moavero. "The neurobiological basis of ADHD." Italian Journal of Pediatrics 36 (2010): 79.

Hines, J.L., T.S. King, and W.J. Curry. "The adult ADHD self-report scale for screening for adult attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)." Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 25.6 Nov.-Dec. 2012: 847-853.

Ingram, S., L. Hechtman, and G. Morgenstern. "Outcome issues in ADHD: Adolescent and adult long-term outcome." Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 5.3 (1999): 243-250.

Lake, J. "Integrative management of ADHD: What the evidence suggests." Psychiatric Times July 2010.

Millstein, R.B., T.E. Wilens, J. Biederman, and T.J. Spencer. "Presenting ADHD symptoms and subtypes in clinically referred adults with ADHD." Journal of Attention Disorders 2.3 Oct. 1997: 159-166.

Mimouni-Bloch, A., A. Kachevanskaya, F.B. Mimouni, et al. "Breastfeeding may protect from developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder." Breastfeeding Medicine May 2013.

Quintero, J., M. Loro, B. Jimenez, and N. Garcia Campos. "Evolutionary issues in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); from risk factors to comorbidity and social and academic impact." Vertex 22.96 Mar.-Apr. 2011: 101-108.

Sagiv, S.K., J.N. Epstein, D.C. Bellinger, and S.A. Korrick. "Pre- and Postnatal Risk Factors for ADHD in a Nonclinical Pediatric Population." Journal of Attention Disorders 17.1 Jan. 2013: 47-57.

Taylor, F.B., and J. Russo. "Efficacy of modafinil compared to dextroamphetamine for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults." Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 10.4 Winter 2000: 311-320.

Thapar, A., and M. Rutter. "Do prenatal risk factors cause psychiatric disorder? Be wary of causal claims." The British Journal of Psychiatry 195 (2009): 100-101.

Weiss, M., and C. Murray. "Assessment and management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults." Canadian Medical Association Journal 168.6 Mar. 2003.

Wilens, T.E., S.V. Faraone, J. Biederman, and S. Gunawardene. "Does stimulant therapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder beget later substance abuse? A meta-analytic review of the literature." Pediatrics 111.1 Jan. 2003: 179-185.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 7/30/2015

Source: MedicineNet.com

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