"The European Medicines Agency (EMA) Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) has started a review of factor VIII-containing products to evaluate the risk of neutralizing antifactor VIII alloantibodies (inhibitors) developing in patients"...
The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Cardiovascular Toxicity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Bleeding Risk [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Pulmonary Toxicity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trial Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Clinical Studies in Adult Patients
In three single-arm clinical studies, 942 patients [see Clinical Trials] diagnosed with myeloproliferative neoplasms of varying etiology (ET: 551; PV: 117; OMPN: 274) were exposed to anagrelide with a mean duration of approximately 65 weeks. Serious adverse reactions reported in these patients included the following: congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, cardiomegaly, complete heart block, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular accident, pericardial effusion [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS], pleural effusion, pulmonary infiltrates, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and pancreatitis. Of the 942 patients treated with anagrelide, 161 (17%) were discontinued from the study because of adverse reactions or abnormal laboratory test results. The most common adverse reactions for treatment discontinuation were headache, diarrhea, edema, palpitations, and abdominal pain.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions to anagrelide (in 5% or greater of 942 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms) in clinical trials were listed in Table 1.
Table 1 : Adverse Reactions Reported in Clinical
Studies in at least 5% of Patients
|General disorders and administration site conditions|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders|
|Nervous system disorders|
Adverse Reactions (frequency 1% to < 5%) included:
General disorders and administration site conditions: Flu symptoms, chills.
Hepatobiliary disorders: Elevated liver enzymes.
Psychiatric disorders: Depression, confusion, nervousness.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Alopecia.
Eye disorders: Abnormal vision, diplopia.
Ear and labyrinth disorders: Tinnitus
Renal and urinary disorders: Hematuria, renal failure.
Other less frequent adverse reactions ( < 1%) were:
Nervous system disorders: Hypoesthesia.
Clinical Study in Pediatric Patients
The frequency of adverse events observed in pediatric patients was similar to adult patients. The most common adverse events observed in pediatric patients were fever, epistaxis, headache, and fatigue during the 3-month anagrelide treatment in the study. Episodes of increased pulse and decreased systolic or diastolic blood pressure beyond the normal ranges in the absence of clinical symptoms were observed. Adverse events that had been reported in these pediatric patients prior to the study and were considered to be related to anagrelide treatment based on retrospective review were; palpitations, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, back pain, anorexia, fatigue, and muscle cramps.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-marketing use of AGRYLIN. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Cases of torsades de pointes, interstitial lung diseases (including allergic alveolitis, eosinophilic pneumonia and interstitial pneumonitis) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS], tubulointerstitial nephritis and clinically significant hepatotoxicity (including symptomatic ALT and AST elevations and elevations greater than three times the ULN) have been reported.
Read the Agrylin (anagrelide) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Drugs That Prolong QT
Do not use AGRYLIN in patients taking medications that may prolong QT interval (including, but not limited to, chloroquine, clarithromycin, haloperidol, methadone, moxifloxacin, amiodarone, disopyramide, procainamide and pimozide) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Anagrelide is a phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor. The effects of drug products with similar properties such as inotropes and other PDE3 inhibitors (e.g., cilostazol, milrinone) should be avoided [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Aspirin And Drugs That Increase Bleeding Risk
Co-administration of single-dose or repeat-dose anagrelide and aspirin showed greater ex vivo anti-platelet aggregation effects than administration of aspirin alone [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Results from an observational study in patients with essential thrombocythemia suggest the rate of major hemorrhagic events (MHEs) in patients treated with anagrelide is higher than in those subjects treated with another cytoreductive treatment. The majority of the major hemorrhagic events occurred in patients who were also receiving concomitant anti-aggregatory treatment (primarily, aspirin). Therefore, the potential risks of the concomitant use of anagrelide with aspirin should be assessed, particularly in patients with a high risk profile for hemorrhage, before treatment is initiated [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Monitor patients for bleeding, particularly those receiving concomitant therapy with other drugs known to cause bleeding (e.g., anticoagulants, PDE3 inhibitors, NSAIDs, antiplatelet agents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors).
Anagrelide and its active metabolite are primarily metabolized by CYP1A2. Drugs that inhibit CYP1A2 (e.g., fluvoxamine, ciprofloxacin) could increase the exposure of anagrelide. Monitor patients for cardiovascular events and titrate doses accordingly when CYP1A2 inhibitors are co-administered.
CYP1A2 inducers could decrease the exposure of anagrelide. Patients taking concomitant CYP1A2 inducers (e.g., omeprazole) may need to have their dose titrated to compensate for the decrease in anagrelide exposure.
Anagrelide demonstrates limited inhibitory activity towards CYP1A2 in vitro and may alter the exposure of concomitant CYP1A2 substrates (e.g. theophylline, fluvoxamine, ondansetron).
Read the Agrylin Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/5/2015
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