"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration yesterday approved Obizur [Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant), Porcine Sequence] for the treatment of bleeding episodes in adults with acquired hemophilia A (acquired Factor VIII [FVII] deficiency).
Torsades de pointes and ventricular tachycardia have been reported with anagrelide. Obtain a pre-treatment cardiovascular examination including an ECG in all patients. During treatment with AGRYLIN monitor patients for cardiovascular effects and evaluate as necessary.
Do not use AGRYLIN in patients with known risk factors for QT interval prolongation, such as congenital long QT syndrome, a known history of acquired QTc prolongation, medicinal products that can prolong QTc interval and hypokalemia [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Hepatic impairment increases anagrelide exposure and could increase the risk of QTc prolongation. Monitor patients with hepatic impairment for QTc prolongation and other cardiovascular adverse reactions. The potential risks and benefits of anagrelide therapy in a patient with mild and moderate hepatic impairment should be assessed before treatment is commenced. Reduce AGRYLIN dose in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. Use of AGRYLIN in patients with severe hepatic impairment has not been studied [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Use In Specific Populations and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Anagrelide is a phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor and may cause vasodilation, tachycardia, palpitations, and congestive heart failure. Other drugs that inhibit PDE3 have caused decreased survival when compared with placebo in patients with Class III-IV congestive heart failure [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
In patients with cardiac disease, use AGRYLIN only when the benefits outweigh the risks.
Use of concomitant anagrelide and aspirin increased major hemorrhagic events in a postmarketing study. Assess the potential risks and benefits for concomitant use of anagrelide with aspirin, since bleeding risks may be increased. Monitor patients for bleeding, including those receiving concomitant therapy with other drugs known to cause bleeding (e.g., anticoagulants, PDE3 inhibitors, NSAIDs, antiplatelet agents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Interstitial lung diseases (including allergic alveolitis, eosinophilic pneumonia and interstitial pneumonitis) have been reported to be associated with the use of anagrelide in post-marketing reports. Most cases presented with progressive dyspnea with lung infiltrations. The time of onset ranged from 1 week to several years after initiating anagrelide. If suspected, discontinue AGRYLIN and evaluate. Symptoms may improve after discontinuation [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
In a two year rat carcinogenicity study a higher incidence of uterine adenocarcinoma, relative to controls, was observed in females receiving 30 mg/kg/day (at least 174 times human AUC exposure after a 1mg twice daily dose). Adrenal phaeochromocytomas were increased relative to controls in males receiving 3 mg/kg/day and above, and in females receiving 10 mg/kg/day and above (at least 10 and 18 times respectively human AUC exposure after a 1 mg twice daily dose).
Anagrelide hydrochloride was not mutagenic in the bacterial mutagenesis (Ames) assay or the mouse lymphoma cell (L5178Y, TK+/-) forward mutation assay, and was not clastogenic in the in vitro chromosome aberration assay using human lymphocytes or the in vivo mouse micronucleus test.
Anagrelide hydrochloride at oral doses up to 240 mg/kg/day (233 times the recommended human dose of 10 mg/day based on body surface area) had no effect on fertility and reproductive function of male rats. However, in fertility studies in female rats, oral doses of 30 mg/kg/day (29 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area) or higher resulted in increased pre-and post-implantation loss and a decrease in the number of live embryos.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with AGRYLIN in pregnant women. In animal embryo-fetal studies, delayed development (delayed skeletal ossification and reduced body weight) was observed in rats administered anagrelide hydrochloride during organogenesis at doses substantially higher than the maximum clinical dose of 10 mg/day. AGRYLIN should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Anagrelide hydrochloride was administered orally to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 900 mg/kg/day in rats and up to 20 mg/kg/day in rabbits (875 and 39 times, respectively, the maximum clinical dose of 10 mg/day based on body surface area). In rats, developmental delays were observed including reductions in fetal weight at 300 and 900 mg/kg/day and delays in skeletal ossification at doses of 100 mg/kg/day and higher. The dose of 100 mg/kg/day (600 mg/m²/day) in rats is approximately 97 times the maximum clinical dose based on body surface area. No adverse embryo-fetal effects were detected in rabbits at the highest dose of 20 mg/kg/day (39 times the maximal clinical dose based on body surface area).
In a pre-and post-natal study conducted in female rats, anagrelide hydrochloride at oral doses of 60 mg/kg/day (58 times the maximum clinical dose based on body surface area) or higher produced delay or blockage of parturition, deaths of non-delivering pregnant dams and their fully developed fetuses, and increased mortality in the pups born.
In a placental transfer study, a single oral dose of [14C]-anagrelide hydrochloride was administered to pregnant rats on gestation Day 17. Drug-related radioactivity was detected in maternal and fetal tissue.
It is not known whether anagrelide is excreted in human milk. Anagrelide or its metabolites have been detected in the milk of lactating rats. Because many drugs are excreted into human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reaction in nursing infants from anagrelide, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
In a rat milk secretion study, a single oral dose of [14C]-anagrelide hydrochloride was administered to lactating female rats on postnatal Day 10. Drug-related radioactivity was detected in the maternal milk and blood.
Experience with AGRYLIN in pediatric patients was based on an open label safety and PK/PD study conducted in 18 pediatric patients aged 7-16 years with thrombocythemia secondary to ET [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and Clinical Studies].
There were no apparent trends or differences in the types of adverse events observed between the pediatric patients compared with those of the adult patients [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Of the 942 subjects in clinical studies of AGRYLIN, 42.1% were 65 years and over, while 14.9% were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Hepatic metabolism is the major route of anagrelide clearance. Exposure to anagrelide is increased 8-fold in patients with moderate hepatic impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] and dose reduction is required [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Use of AGRYLIN in patients with severe hepatic impairment has not been studied. The potential risks and benefits of anagrelide therapy in a patient with mild and moderate hepatic impairment should be assessed before treatment is commenced. Assess hepatic function before and during anagrelide treatment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/5/2015
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