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Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Long-term carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted.
Nitazoxanide was not genotoxic in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell chromosomal aberration assay or the mouse micronucleus assay. Nitazoxanide was genotoxic in one tester strain (TA 100) in the Ames bacterial mutation assay.
Impairment Of Fertility
Nitazoxanide did not adversely affect male or female fertility in the rat at 2400 mg/kg/day (approximately 20 times the clinical adult dose adjusted for body surface area).
Use In Specific Populations
There are no data with ALINIA in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk. No teratogenicity or fetotoxicity was observed in animal reproduction studies with administration of nitazoxanide to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at exposures 30 and 2 times, respectively, the exposure at the maximum recommended human dose of 500 mg twice daily based on body surface area (BSA).
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Nitazoxanide was administered orally to pregnant rats at doses of 0, 200, 800 or 3200 mg/kg/day on gestation days 6 to 15. Nitazoxanide produced no evidence of systemic maternal toxicity when administered once daily via oral gavage to pregnant female rats at levels up to 3200 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis.
In rabbits, nitazoxanide administered at doses of 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day on gestation days 7 to 20. Oral treatment of pregnant rabbits with nitazoxanide during organogenesis resulted in minimal maternal toxicity and no external fetal anomalies.
No information regarding the presence of nitazoxanide in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production is available. The development and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for ALINIA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from ALINIA or from the underlying maternal condition.
The safety and efficacy of ALINIA for Oral Suspension for the treatment of diarrhea caused by G. lamblia or C. parvum in pediatric patients 1 to 11 years of age has been established based on three (3) randomized, controlled studies with 104 pediatric subjects treated with ALINIA for Oral Suspension 100 mg/5 mL. Furthermore, the safety and efficacy of ALINIA for Oral Suspension for the treatment of diarrhea caused by G. lamblia or C. parvum in pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age has been established based on two (2) randomized controlled studies with 44 pediatric subjects treated with ALINIA for Oral Suspension 100 mg/5 mL. [see Clinical Studies]
The safety and efficacy of ALINIA Tablets for the treatment of diarrhea caused by G. lamblia or C. parvum in pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age has been established based on three (3) randomized controlled studies with 47 pediatric subjects treated with ALINIA Tablets 500 mg.
A single ALINIA Tablet contains a greater amount of nitazoxanide than is recommended for use in pediatric patients 11 years or younger. [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Safety and efficacy of ALINIA for Oral Suspension in pediatric patients less than one year of age has not been studied.
Clinical studies of ALINIA Tablets and ALINIA for Oral Suspension did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy in elderly patients should be considered when prescribing ALINIA Tablets and ALINIA for Oral Suspension.
Renal And Hepatic Impairment
The pharmacokinetics of nitazoxanide in patients with compromised renal or hepatic function has not been studied.
HIV-Infected Or Immunodeficient Patients
ALINIA Tablets and ALINIA for Oral Suspension have not been studied for the treatment of diarrhea caused by G. lamblia in HIV-infected or immunodeficient patients. ALINIA Tablets and ALINIA for Oral Suspension have not been shown to be superior to placebo for the treatment of diarrhea caused by C. parvum in HIV-infected or immunodeficient patients [see Clinical Studies].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/25/2016
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