"Plants produce round pollen grains. Individual grains are too tiny to see with the naked eye, but some can form large, visible clusters. For fertilization to take place and seeds to form in some plants, pollen must be moved from the flower of one"...
The replacement of a systemic corticosteroid with a topical corticosteroid can be accompanied by signs of adrenal insufficiency and, in addition, some patients may experience symptoms of corticosteroid withdrawal, e.g., joint or muscular pain, or both, lassitude and depression. Patients previously treated for prolonged periods with systemic corticosteroids and transferred to topical corticosteroids should be carefully monitored for acute adrenal insufficiency in response to stress. In those patients who have asthma or other clinical conditions which require long-term corticosteroid treatment, too rapid a decrease in systemic corticosteroid may cause a severe exacerbation of their symptoms.
Patients who are on immunosuppressant drugs are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in children or adults on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids. In children, or adults who have not had these diseases, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. If exposed, therapy with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) or pooled intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as appropriate, may be indicated. If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.
Intranasal corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use section).
In clinical studies with triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray, the development of localized infections of the nose and pharynx with Candida albicans has rarely occurred. When such an infection develops it may require treatment with appropriate local therapy and discontinuance of treatment with AllerNaze (triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray) .
AllerNaze (triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray) should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active or quiescent tuberculous infection of the respiratory tract or in patients with untreated fungal, bacterial, or systemic viral infections or ocular herpes simplex.
Because of the inhibitory effect of corticosteroids on wound healing, in patients who have experienced recent nasal septal ulcers, nasal surgery or trauma, a corticosteroid should be used with caution until healing has occurred. As with other nasally inhaled corticosteroids, nasal septal perforations have been reported in rare instances.
When used at excessive doses, systemic corticosteroid effects such as hypercorticism and adrenal suppression may appear. If such changes occur, AllerNaze (triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray) should be discontinued slowly, consistent with accepted procedures for discontinuing oral corticosteroid therapy.
Systemic Availability and HPA Axis Suppression
Triamcinolone acetonide administered intranasally as triamcinolone acetonide solution has been shown to be absorbed into the systemic circulation in humans. The bioavailability of triamcinolone acetonide when administered as a solution in triamcinolone acetonide solution is approximately 5-fold greater than when administered as a CFC aerosol suspension formulation. While triamcinolone acetonide solution administered to 5 patients with allergic rhinitis at 400 mcg/day for 42 days did not measurably affect adrenal response to a six-hour cosyntropin stimulation test, the 6-hour cosyntropin test is an insensitive assessment for subtle HPA effects of corticosteroids. Doses of 800 and 1600 mcg/day triamcinolone acetonide solution did demonstrate a trend toward dose-related suppression of the HPA response. However, this decrease did not reach statistical significance, whereas 10 mg daily oral prednisone did. (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacodynamics)
Information for patients
Patients being treated with AllerNaze (triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray) should receive the following information and instructions. Patients who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles and, if exposed, to obtain medical advice.
Patients should use AllerNaze (triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray) at regular intervals since its effectiveness depends on its regular use. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION)
An improvement in some patient symptoms may be seen within the first two days of treatment, and generally, it takes one week of treatment to reach maximum benefit. Initial assessment for response should be made during this time frame and periodically until the patient's symptoms are stabilized.
The patient should take the medication as directed and should not exceed the prescribed dosage. The patient should contact the physician if symptoms do not improve after three weeks, or if the condition worsens. Patients who experience recurrent episodes of epistaxis (nose bleeds) or nasal septum discomfort while taking this medication should contact their physician. Transient nasal irritation and/or burning or stinging may occur upon instillation with this product. Spraying triamcinolone acetonide directly into the eyes or onto the nasal septum should be avoided. For the proper use of this unit and to attain maximum improvement, the patient should read and follow the accompanying patient instructions carefully.
The bottle should be discarded after 120 sprays following initial priming since the amount of triamcinolone acetonide delivered thereafter per spray may not be consistent. Do not transfer any remaining solution to another bottle.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis And Impairment Of Fertility
In two-year mouse and Sprague-Dawley rat studies, triamcinolone acetonide did not increase the incidence of tumors at oral doses up to 1 and 3 mcg/kg, respectively (less than the maximum recommended daily intranasal dose on a mcg/m² basis
Triamcinolone acetonide has not been found to be mutagenic in Salmonella/mammalian-microsome reverse mutation assay (Ames test) or the chromosomal aberration test in the Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells.
Triamcinolone acetonide did not impair fertility in Sprague-Dawley rats given oral doses up to 15 mcg/kg (less than the maximum recommended daily intranasal dose on a mcg/m² basis
However, triamcinolone acetonide caused increased fetal resorptions and stillbirths and decreased pup weight and survival at 5 mcg/kg (less than the maximum recommended daily intranasal dose on a mcg/m 2 basis). These effects were not produced at 1 mcg/kg (less than the maximum recommended daily intranasal dose on a mcg/m² basis
Pregnancy Category C
Triamcinolone acetonide was teratogenic in rats, rabbits, and monkeys. In rats, triamcinolone acetonide was teratogenic at inhalation doses of 20 mcg/kg and above (approximately 7/10 of the maximum recommended daily intranasal dose in adults on a mcg/m² basis). In rabbits, triamcinolone acetonide was teratogenic at inhalation doses 20 mcg/kg and above (approximately 2 times the maximum recommended daily intranasal dose in adults on a mcg/m² basis). In monkeys, triamcinolone acetonide was teratogenic at an inhalation dose of 500 mcg/kg and above (approximately 37 times the maximum recommended daily intranasal dose in adults on a mcg/m² basis). Dose-related teratogenic effects in rats and rabbits included cleft palate, or internal hydrocephaly, or both and axial skeletal defects, whereas the effects observed in the monkey were cranial malformations.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Triamcinolone acetonide, like other corticosteroids, should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefits justify the potential risk to the fetus. Since their introduction, experience with oral corticosteroids in pharmacologic as opposed to physiologic doses suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from corticosteroids than humans. In addition, because there is a natural increase in corticosteroid production during pregnancy, most women will require a lower exogenous corticosteroid dose and many will not need corticosteroid treatment during pregnancy.
Hypoadrenalism may occur in infants born of mothers receiving corticosteroids during pregnancy. Such infants should be carefully observed.
It is not known whether triamcinolone acetonide is excreted in human breast milk. Because other corticosteroids are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when AllerNaze (triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray) is administered to nursing women.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 12 years have not been established. Controlled has been observed in the absence of laboratory evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression, suggesting that growth velocity is a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA axis function. The long-term effects of this reduction in growth velocity associated with intranasal corticosteroids, including the impact on final adult height, are unknown. The potential for "catch up" growth following discontinuation of treatment with intranasal corticosteroids has not been adequately studied. The growth of pediatric patients receiving intranasal corticosteroids, including AllerNaze (triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray) should be monitored routinely (e.g. via stadiometry). The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against clinical benefits obtained and the availability of safe and effective noncorticosteroid treatment alternatives. To minimize the systemic effects of intranasal corticosteroids, including AllerNaze (triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray) , each patient should be titrated to the lowest dose that effectively controls his/her symptoms.
Clinical studies of AllerNaze (triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray) did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/24/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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