Alzheimer's Disease Causes, Stages, and Symptoms (cont.)
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Alzheimer's disease facts
- What is dementia?
- What is Alzheimer's disease?
- Who develops Alzheimer's disease?
- What are the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease?
- Ten warning signs of Alzheimer's disease
- What causes Alzheimer's disease?
- What are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease?
- How is the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease made?
- What treatment and management options are available for Alzheimer's disease?
- Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs)
- Partial glutamate antagonists
- Non-medication based treatments
- Treatment of psychiatric symptoms
- What is the prognosis for a person with Alzheimer's disease?
- Caring for the caregiver and Alzheimer's disease resources
- Alzheimer's Disease FAQs
- Find a local Geriatrician in your town
How is the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease made?
No specific blood test or imaging test exists for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is diagnosed when: 1) a person has sufficient cognitive decline to meet criteria for dementia; 2) the clinical course is consistent with that of Alzheimer's disease; 3) no other brain diseases or other processes are better explanations for the dementia.
What other conditions should be screened for?
There are many conditions that can cause dementia, to include the following:
Neurological disorders: Parkinson's disease, cerebrovascular disease and strokes, brain tumors, blood clots, and multiple sclerosis can sometimes be associated with dementia although many patients with these conditions are cognitively normal.
Side effects of medications: Many medicines can cause cognitive impairment, especially in elderly patients. Perhaps the most frequent offenders are drugs used to control bladder urgency and incontinence. "Psychiatric medications" such as antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications and "neurological medications" such as anti-seizure medications can also be associated with cognitive impairment.
If a physician evaluates a person with cognitive impairment who is on one of these medications, the medication is often gently tapered and/or discontinued to determine whether it might be the cause of the cognitive impairment. If it is clear that the cognitive impairment preceded the use of these medications, such tapering may not be necessary. On the other hand, "psychiatric," "neurological," and "incontinence" medications are often appropriately prescribed to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Such patients need to be followed carefully to determine whether these medications cause any worsening of cognition.
Psychiatric disorders: In older persons, some forms of depression can cause problems with memory and concentration that initially may be indistinguishable from the early symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Sometimes, these conditions, referred to as pseudodementia, can be reversed. Studies have shown that persons with depression and coexistent cognitive (thinking, memory) impairment are highly likely to have an underlying dementia when followed for several years.
Substance Abuse: Abuse of legal and/or illegal drugs and alcohol abuse is often associated with cognitive impairment.
Metabolic Disorders: Thyroid dysfunction, some steroid disorders, and nutritional deficiencies such as vitamin B12 deficiency or thiamine deficiency are sometimes associated with cognitive impairment.
Toxic Factors: Long term consequences of acute carbon monoxide poisoning can lead to an encephalopathy with dementia. In some rare cases, heavy metal poisoning can be associated with dementia.
Tumors: Many primary and metastatic brain tumors can cause dementia. However, many patients with brain tumors have no or little cognitive impairment associated with the tumor.
The importance of comprehensive clinical evaluation
Because many other disorders can be confused with Alzheimer's disease, a comprehensive clinical evaluation is essential in arriving at a correct diagnosis. Such an assessment should include at least three major components; 1) a thorough general medical workup, 2) a neurological examination including testing of memory and other functions of thinking , and 3) a psychiatric evaluation to assess mood, anxiety, and clarity of thought.
Such an evaluation takes time - usually at least an hour. In the United States healthcare system, neurologists, psychiatrists, or geriatricians frequently become involved. Nonetheless, any physician may be able to perform a thorough evaluation.
The American Academy of Neurology has published guidelines that include imaging of the brain in the initial evaluation of patients with dementia. These studies are either a noncontrast CT scan or an MRI scan. Other imaging procedures that look at the function of the brain (functional neuroimaging), such as SPECT, PET, and fMRI, may be helpful in specific cases, but generally are not needed. However, in many healthcare systems outside of the United States, brain imaging as not a standard part of the assessment for possible Alzheimer's disease.
Despite many attempts, identification of a blood test to diagnose Alzheimer's disease has remained elusive. Such testing is neither widely available nor recommended.
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