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Ambisome

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Ambisome

AmBisome®
(amphotericin B) Liposome for Injection

Ambisome

DRUG DESCRIPTION

AmBisome for Injection is a sterile, non-pyrogenic lyophilized product for intravenous infusion. Each vial contains 50 mg of amphotericin B, USP, intercalated into a liposomal membrane consisting of approximately 213 mg hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine; 52 mg cholesterol, NF; 84 mg distearoylphosphatidylglycerol; 0.64 mg alpha tocopherol, USP; together with 900 mg sucrose, NF; and 27 mg disodium succinate hexahydrate as buffer. Following reconstitution with Sterile Water for Injection, USP, the resulting pH of the suspension is between 5-6.

AmBisome is a true single bilayer liposomal drug delivery system. Liposomes are closed, spherical vesicles created by mixing specific proportions of amphophilic substances such as phospholipids and cholesterol so that they arrange themselves into multiple concentric bilayer membranes when hydrated in aqueous solutions. Single bilayer liposomes are then formed by microemulsification of multilamellar vesicles using a homogenizer. AmBisome consists of these unilamellar bilayer liposomes with amphotericin B intercalated within the membrane. Due to the nature and quantity of amphophilic substances used, and the lipophilic moiety in the amphotericin B molecule, the drug is an integral part of the overall structure of the AmBisome liposomes. AmBisome contains true liposomes that are less than 100 nm in diameter. A schematic depiction of the liposome is presented below.

AmBisome®
  (amphotericin B) Structural Formula Illustration

Note: Liposomal encapsulation or incorporation into a lipid complex can substantially affect a drug's functional properties relative to those of the unencapsulated drug or non-lipid associated drug. In addition, different liposomal or lipid-complex products with a common active ingredient may vary from one another in the chemical composition and physical form of the lipid component. Such differences may affect the functional properties of these drug products.

Amphotericin B is a macrocyclic, polyene, antifungal antibiotic produced from a strain of Streptomyces nodosus. Amphotericin B is designated chemically as: [1R-(1R*,3S*,5R*,6R*,9R*, 11R*, 15S*, 16R*, 17R*, 18S*, 19E.21 E,23E,25E,27E,29E,31 E,33R*,35S*,36R*,37S*)]-33-[(3-Amino-3,6- dideoxy-β-D-mannopyranosyl)oxy]-1,3,5,6,9,11,17,37-octahydroxy-15,16,18- trimethyl-13-oxo-14,39-dioxabicyclo[33.3.1]nonatriaconta-19,21,23,25,27,29,31- heptaene-36-carboxylic acid (CAS No. 1397-89-3).

Amphotericin B has a molecular formula of C47H73NO17 and a molecular weight of 924.09.

The structure of amphotericin B is shown below:

Amphotericin B Structural Formula Illustration

What are the possible side effects of amphotericin B liposomal (AmBisome)?

Some people receiving an amphotericin B liposomal injection have had a reaction to the infusion (either when the medicine is injected into the vein or within 1 to 3 hours afterward). Tell your caregiver right away if you feel dizzy, nauseated, light-headed, sweaty, feverish or cold, or if you have a slow heartbeat, chest tightness, or trouble breathing.

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Tell your doctor at once if you have any of...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Ambisome »

What are the precautions when taking amphotericin b (Ambisome)?

Before using amphotericin/lipid complex, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: white blood cell (leukocyte) transfusions, heart disease (e.g., irregular heartbeat, congestive heart failure), liver disease, kidney disease.

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before...

Read All Potential Precautions of Ambisome »

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/16/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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