Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
In this Article
- Amenorrhea facts
- Definition of primary and secondary amenorrhea
- What causes amenorrhea?
- What are the symptoms of amenorrhea?
- When should I seek medical care for amenorrhea?
- How is amenorrhea diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for amenorrhea?
- What are the complications of amenorrhea?
- Can amenorrhea be prevented?
- What is the outlook for a woman suffering from amenorrhea?
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
What are the symptoms of amenorrhea?
Primary or secondary amenorrhea (respectively) is considered to be present when a girl has:
- not developed menstrual periods by age 16; or
- a woman who has previously had a menstrual cycle stops having menstrual periods for three cycles in a row, or for a time period of six months or more and is not pregnant.
Other symptoms and signs may be present, which are highly variable and depend upon the underlying cause of the amenorrhea. For example, symptoms of hormonal imbalance or male hormone excess can include irregular menstrual periods, unwanted hair growth, deepening of the voice, and acne. Elevated prolactin levels as a cause of amenorrhea can result in galactorrhea (a milky discharge from the nipples that is not related to normal breastfeeding).
When should I seek medical care for amenorrhea?
It is always appropriate to seek medical attention for amenorrhea. Amenorrhea that is not related to pregnancy or the menopausal transition (time when there has been no menstrual periods for 12 consecutive months and no other biological or physiological cause can be identified, and the female is at the end of her biologically-determined child bearing years) should be further investigated to rule out serious conditions that may result in amenorrhea.
How is amenorrhea diagnosed?
The diagnosis of amenorrhea requires a careful medical history to document the presence of amenorrhea as well as any other coexisting medical conditions that may be the cause of amenorrhea. A physical examination, including a pelvic examination is also performed.
Depending upon the results of the history and physical examination further diagnostic tests may be ordered. Blood tests may be ordered to examine the levels of ovarian, pituitary, and thyroid hormones. These tests may include measurements of prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen, thyrotropin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and testosterone. For some individuals, a pregnancy test is the first test performed.
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