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Aminosyn HBC 7% Sulfite Free

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Aminosyn HBC 7% Sulfite Free

Warnings
Precautions

WARNINGS

Safe, effective use of parenteral nutrition requires a knowledge of nutrition as well as clinical expertise in recognition and treatment of the complications which can occur. Frequent evaluation and laboratory determinations are necessary for proper monitoring of parenteral nutrition. Studies should include blood sugar, serum proteins, kidney and liver function tests, electrolytes, hemogram, carbon dioxide content, serum osmolarities, blood cultures, and blood ammonia levels.

Administration of amino acids in the presence of impaired renal function or gastrointestinal bleeding may augment an already elevated blood urea nitrogen. Patients with azotemia from any cause should not be infused with amino acids without regard to total nitrogen intake.

Administration of amino acid solutions that have not been specifically formulated to treat patients with hepatic insufficiency may result in plasma amino acid imbalances, hyperammonemia, prerenal azotemia, stupor and coma.

Conservative doses of amino acids should be given, dictated by the nutritional status of the patient. Should symptoms of hyperammonemia develop, amino acid administration should be discontinued and the patient's clinical status re-evaluated.

Administration of intravenous solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overload resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states, or pulmonary edema. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of the solutions. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of the solutions.

WARNING: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.

Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

PRECAUTIONS

Special care must be taken when administering hypertonic glucose to provide calories in diabetic or prediabetic patients.

Do not withdraw venous blood for blood chemistries through the peripheral infusion site, as interference with estimations of nitrogen-containing substances may occur.

Intravenously administered amino acids should be used with caution in patients with history of renal disease, pulmonary disease, or with cardiac insufficiency so as to avoid excessive fluid accumulation.

The effect of infusion of amino acids, without dextrose, upon carbohydrate metabolism of children is not known at this time.

Nitrogen intake should be carefully monitored in patients with impaired renal function.

Aminosyn-HBC 7%, Sulfite -Free, (an amino acid injection – high branched chain) contains no added phosphorus. Patients, especially those with hypophosphatemia, may require the addition of phosphate. To prevent hypocalcemia, calcium supplementation should always accompany phosphate administration. To assure adequate intake, serum levels should be monitored frequently.

For long-term total nutrition, or if a patient has inadequate fat stores, it is essential to provide adequate exogenous calories concurrently with the amino acids. Concentrated dextrose solutions are an effective source of such calories. Such strongly hypertonic nutrient solutions should be administered through an indwelling intravenous catheter with the tip located in the superior vena cava.

Aminosyn-HBC contains no more than 25 mcg/L of aluminum.

SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS FOR CENTRAL INFUSIONS

ADMINISTRATION BY CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER SHOULD BE USED ONLY BY THOSE FAMILIAR WITH THIS TECHNIQUE AND ITS COMPLICATIONS.

Central vein infusion (with added concentrated carbohydrate solutions) of amino acid solutions requires a knowledge of nutrition as well as clinical expertise in recognition and treatment of complications. Attention must be given to solution preparation, administration and patient monitoring. IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT A CAREFULLY PREPARED PROTOCOL, BASED ON CURRENT MEDICAL PRACTICES, BE FOLLOWED, PREFERABLY BY AN EXPERIENCED TEAM.

Summary Highlights Of Complications

(See also Current Medical Literature).

1. Technical

The placement of a central venous catheter should be regarded as a surgical procedure. One should be fully acquainted with various techniques of catheter insertion. For details of technique and placement sites, consult the medical literature. X-ray is the best means of verifying catheter placement. Complications known to occur from the placement of central venous catheters are pneumothorax, hemothorax, hydrothorax, artery puncture and transection, injury to the brachial plexus, malposition of the catheter, formation of arteriovenous fistula, phlebitis, thrombosis and air and catheter emboli.

2. Septic

The constant risk of sepsis is present during administration of total parenteral nutrition. It is imperative that the preparation of the solution and the placement and care of catheters be accomplished under strict aseptic conditions.

Solutions should ideally be prepared in the hospital pharmacy under a laminar flow hood using careful aseptic technique to avoid inadvertent touch contamination. Solutions should be used promptly after mixing.

Storage should be under refrigeration and limited to a brief period of time, preferably less than 24 hours.

Administration time for a single bottle and set should never exceed 24 hours.

3. Metabolic

The following metabolic complications have been reported with TPN administration: Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, osteoporosis, hyperglycemia, and glycosuria, rebound hypoglycemia, osmotic diuresis and dehydration, elevated liver enzymes, hypo- and hypervitaminosis, electrolyte imbalances and hyperammonemia in children. Frequent evaluations are necessary especially during the first few days of therapy to prevent or minimize these complications.

Administration of glucose at a rate exceeding the patient's utilization rate may lead to hyperglycemia, coma and death.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic effects

Pregnancy Category C: Animal reproduction studies have not been performed with Aminosyn-HBC 7%. It is not known whether Aminosyn-HBC 7% can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Aminosyn-HBC 7% should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in children have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Aminosyn-HBC 7% did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosage range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Last reviewed on RxList: 1/13/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Warnings
Precautions
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