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Aminosyn II 3.5

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Aminosyn II 3.5% in 5% Dextrose

WARNINGS

Parenteral infusion of amino acids, similar to the enteral ingestion of any protein, may induce a rise in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) especially in patients with impaired renal function. Appropriate laboratory tests should be performed periodically and the infusion eventually discontinued if BUN levels exceed normal postprandial limits and continue to rise. It should be noted that a modest rise in BUN normally occurs as a result of increased protein intake.

Administration of amino acid solutions to a patient with hepatic insufficiency may result in serum amino acid imbalances, metabolic alkalosis, prerenal azotemia, hyperammonemia, stupor and coma.

Solutions containing sodium ion should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency and in clinical states in which there exists edema with sodium retention.

Solutions which contain potassium ion should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with hyperkalemia, severe renal failure and in conditions in which potassium retention is present.

Solutions containing acetate ion should be used with great care in patients with metabolic or respiratory alkalosis. Acetate should be administered with great care in those conditions in which there is an increased level or an impaired utilization of this ion, such as severe hepatic insufficiency.

Aminosyn II 3.5% in 5% Dextrose Injection contains sodium hydrosulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people.

Parenteral administration of amino acids may result in increased plasma ammonia concentration. Instances of asymptomatic hyperammonemia have been reported in patients without overt liver dysfunction. The mechanisms of this reaction are not clearly defined, but may involve genetic defects and immature or subclinically impaired liver function.

Hyperammonemia is of special significance in infants, as it can result in mental retardation. Therefore, it is essential that blood ammonia levels be monitored frequently in infants.

WARNING: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.

Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

PRECAUTIONS

Special care must be taken when administering glucose solutions to provide calories in diabetic or prediabetic patients. To control and minimize possible hyperglycemia and consequent glycosuria, it is desirable to monitor blood and urine glucose and, if necessary, add insulin.

Because of its antianabolic activity, concurrent administration of tetracycline may reduce the nitrogen sparing effects of infused amino acids.

Feeding regimens which include amino acids should be used with caution in patients with history of renal disease, pulmonary disease, or with cardiac insufficiency so as to avoid excessive fluid accumulation.

Nitrogen intake should be carefully monitored in patients with impaired renal function. Contains no more than 25 mcg/L of aluminum.

Pregnancy Category C

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Aminosyn II 3.5% in 5% Dextrose Injection. It is not known whether this admixture can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. Aminosyn II 3.5% in 5% Dextrose (amino acid injection in dextrose injection) Injection should be given to pregnant women only if clearly needed.

Geriatric Use

Clinical Studies of Aminosyn II in Dextrose Injection have not been performed to determine whether patients over 65 years of age respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by kidney, and the risk for adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Pediatric Usage

Due to their concentration, these solutions are not recommended for use in pediatric patients less than 1 year old. Frequent monitoring of serum glucose concentrations is required when dextrose is prescribed to pediatric patients, particularly neonates and low birth weight infants.

CLINICAL EVALUATION AND LABORATORY DETERMINATIONS, AT THE DISCRETION OF THE ATTENDING PHYSICIAN, ARE NECESSARY FOR PROPER MONITORING DURING ADMINISTRATION. Do not withdraw venous blood for blood chemistries through the peripheral infusion site, as interference with estimations of nitrogen containing substances may occur. Blood studies should include glucose, urea nitrogen, serum electrolytes, ammonia, cholesterol, acid-base balance, serum proteins, kidney and liver function tests, osmolarity and hemogram. White blood count and blood cultures are to be determined if indicated. Urinary osmolality and glucose should be determined as necessary.

Do not use unless the solutions are clear and container is undamaged. Discard unused portion.

Do not use if solution in either chamber is discolored or if clamp is open or missing.

Last reviewed on RxList: 1/14/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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