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Aminosyn PF 7

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Aminosyn PF 7% Sulfite Free

Warnings
Precautions

WARNINGS

Safe, effective use of parenteral nutrition requires a knowledge of nutrition as well as clinical expertise in recognition and treatment of the complications which can occur. FREQUENT EVALUATION AND LABORATORY DETERMINATIONS ARE NECESSARY FOR PROPER MONITORING OF PARENTERAL NUTRITION. Studies should include blood sugar, serum proteins, kidney and liver function tests, electrolytes, hemogram, carbon dioxide content, serum osmolalities, blood cultures, and blood ammonia levels.

Administration of amino acids in the presence of impaired renal function or gastrointestinal bleeding may augment an already elevated blood urea nitrogen. Patients with azotemia from any cause should not be infused with amino acids without regard to total nitrogen intake.

Administration of intravenous solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overload resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states, or pulmonary edema. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of the solutions.

Administration of amino acid solutions to a patient with hepatic insufficiency may result in plasma amino acid imbalances, hyperammonemia, prerenal azotemia, stupor and coma.

Hyperammonemia is of special significance in infants, as its occurrence in the syndrome caused by genetic metabolic defects is sometimes associated, although not necessarily in a causal relationship, with mental retardation. This reaction appears to be dose-related and is more likely to develop during prolonged therapy. It is essential that blood ammonia be measured frequently in infants.

Conservative doses of amino acids should be given, dictated by the nutritional status of the patient. Should symptoms of hyperammonemia develop, amino acid dosage levels should be reduced and titrated against serum ammonia levels.

WARNING: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.

Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

PRECAUTIONS

Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations are necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, and acid-base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or whenever the condition of the patient warrants such evaluation. Significant deviations from normal concentrations may require the use of additional electrolyte supplements.

Strongly hypertonic nutrient solutions should be administered via an intravenous catheter placed in a central vein, preferably the superior vena cava.

Care should be taken to avoid circulatory overload, particularly in patients with cardiac insufficiency.

Special care must be taken when giving hypertonic dextrose to a diabetic or pre-diabetic patient. To prevent severe hyperglycemia in such patients, insulin may be required.

Administration of glucose at a rate exceeding the patient's utilization rate may lead to hyperglycemia, coma, and death.

The effect of infusion of amino acids, without dextrose, upon carbohydrate metabolism of children is not known at this time. It is essential to provide adequate exogenous dextrose calories concurrently with amino acids. Administration of amino acids without carbohydrates may result in the accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood. Correction of this ketonemia may be achieved by the administration of carbohydrate.

Essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) is becoming increasingly recognized in patients on long term TPN (more than 5 days). The use of fat emulsion to provide 4 — 10% of total caloric intake as linoleic acid may prevent EFAD.

Peripheral administration of Aminosyn-PF 7%, Sulfite-Free, (an amino acid injection — pediatric formula) requires appropriate dilution and provision of adequate calories. Care should be taken to assure proper placement of the needle within the lumen of the vein. The venipuncture site should be inspected frequently for signs of infiltration. If venous thrombosis or phlebitis occurs, discontinue infusions or change infusion site and initiate appropriate treatment.

Extraordinary electrolyte losses such as may occur during protracted nasogastric suction, vomiting, diarrhea, or gastrointestinal fistula drainage may necessitate additional electrolyte supplementation.

Metabolic acidosis can be prevented or readily controlled by adding a portion of the cations in the electrolyte mixture as acetate salts and in the case of hyperchloremic acidosis, by keeping the total chloride content of the infusate to a minimum.

Aminosyn-PF 7% contains no chloride.

Aminosyn-PF 7% contains no added phosphorus. Patients, especially those with hypophosphatemia, may require the addition of phosphate. To prevent hypocalcemia, calcium supplementation should always accompany phosphate administration. To assure adequate intake, serum levels should be monitored frequently.

Aminosyn-PF 7% contains no more than 25 mcg/L of aluminum.

To minimize the risk of possible incompatabilities arising from mixing this solution with other additives that may be prescribed, the final infusate should be inspected for cloudiness or precipitation immediately after mixing, prior to administration, and periodically during administration.

SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS FOR CENTRAL INFUSIONS

ADMINISTRATION BY CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER SHOULD BE USED ONLY BY THOSE FAMILIAR WITH THIS TECHNIQUE AND ITS COMPLICATIONS.

Central vein infusion (with added concentrated carbohydrate solutions) of amino acid solutions requires a knowledge of nutrition as well as clinical expertise in recognition and treatment of complications. Attention must be given to solution preparation, administration and patient monitoring. IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT A CAREFULLY PREPARED PROTOCOL, BASED ON CURRENT MEDICAL PRACTICES, BE FOLLOWED, PREFERABLY BY AN EXPERIENCED TEAM.

Summary Highlights Of Complications

(See also Current Medical Literature).

1. Technical

The placement of a central venous catheter should be regarded as a surgical procedure. One should be fully acquainted with various techniques of catheter insertion. For details of technique and placement sites, consult the medical literature. X-ray is the best means of verifying catheter placement. Complications known to occur from the placement of central venous catheters are pneumothorax, hemothorax, hydrothorax, artery puncture and transection, injury to the brachial plexus, malposition of the catheter, formation of arteriovenous fistula, phlebitis, thrombosis and air and catheter emboli.

2. Septic

The constant risk of sepsis is present during administration of total parenteral nutrition. It is imperative that the preparation of the solution and the placement and care of catheters be accomplished under strict aseptic conditions.

Solutions should ideally be prepared in the hospital pharmacy under a laminar flow hood using careful aseptic technique to avoid inadvertent touch contamination. Solutions should be used promptly after mixing. Storage should be under refrigeration and limited to a brief period of time, preferably less than 24 hours.

Administration time for a single container and set should never exceed 24 hours.

3. Metabolic

The following metabolic complications have been reported with TPN administration: Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, osteoporosis, hyperglycemia and glycosuria, rebound hypoglycemia, osmotic diuresis and dehydration, elevated liver enzymes, hypo- and hypervitaminosis, electrolyte imbalances and hyperammonemia in children. Frequent evaluations are necessary especially during the first few days of therapy to prevent or minimize these complications.

Administration of glucose at a rate exceeding the patient's utilization rate may lead to hyperglycemia, coma and death. CLINICAL EVALUATION AND LABORATORY DETERMINATIONS, AT THE DISCRETION OF THE ATTENDING PHYSICIAN ARE NECESSARY FOR PROPER MONITORING DURING ADMINISTRATION. Do not withdraw venous blood for blood chemistries through the peripheral infusion site, as interference with estimations of nitrogen-containing substances may occur. Blood studies should include glucose, urea nitrogen, serum electrolytes, ammonia, cholesterol, acid-base balance, serum proteins, kidney and liver function tests, osmolarity and hemogram. White blood count and blood cultures are to be determined if indicated. Urinary osmolality and glucose should be determined as necessary.

Pregnancy Category C

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Aminosyn-PF 7%. It is also not known whether Aminosyn-PF 7% can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Aminosyn-PF 7% should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Last reviewed on RxList: 1/13/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Warnings
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