"Aug. 10, 2011 -- Two studies show that a new kind of experimental medication relieves the pain and bloating of persistent constipation better than a placebo.
The studies, which are published in the New England Journal of Medicine/"...
Patients taking Amitiza may experience nausea. Concomitant administration of food with Amitiza may reduce symptoms of nausea [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Amitiza should not be prescribed to patients that have severe diarrhea. Patients should be aware of the possible occurrence of diarrhea during treatment. Patients should be instructed to discontinue Amitiza and inform their physician if severe diarrhea occurs [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
In clinical trials, dyspnea was reported by 3%, 1%, and < 1% of the treated CIC, OIC, and IBS-C populations receiving Amitiza, respectively, compared to 0%, 1%, and < 1% of placebo-treated patients. There have been postmarketing reports of dyspnea when using Amitiza 24 mcg twice daily. Some patients have discontinued treatment because of dyspnea. These events have usually been described as a sensation of chest tightness and difficulty taking in a breath, and generally have an acute onset within 30–60 minutes after taking the first dose. They generally resolve within a few hours after taking the dose, but recurrence has been frequently reported with subsequent doses.
In patients with symptoms suggestive of mechanical gastrointestinal obstruction, perform a thorough evaluation to confirm the absence of an obstruction prior to initiating therapy with Amitiza.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Two 2-year oral (gavage) carcinogenicity studies (one in Crl:B6C3F1 mice and one in Sprague-Dawley rats) were conducted with lubiprostone. In the 2-year carcinogenicity study in mice, lubiprostone doses of 25, 75, 200, and 500 mcg/kg/day (approximately 2, 6, 17, and 42 times the highest recommended human dose, respectively, based on body surface area) were used. In the 2-year rat carcinogenicity study, lubiprostone doses of 20, 100, and 400 mcg/kg/day (approximately 3, 17, and 68 times the highest recommended human dose, respectively, based on body surface area) were used. In the mouse carcinogenicity study, there was no significant increase in any tumor incidences. There was a significant increase in the incidence of interstitial cell adenoma of the testes in male rats at the 400 mcg/kg/day dose. In female rats, treatment with lubiprostone produced hepatocellular adenoma at the 400 mcg/kg/day dose.
Lubiprostone was not genotoxic in the in vitro Ames reverse mutation assay, the in vitro mouse lymphoma (L5178Y TK+/-) forward mutation assay, the in vitro Chinese hamster lung (CHL/IU) chromosomal aberration assay, and the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.
Impairment of Fertility
Lubiprostone, at oral doses of up to 1000 mcg/kg/day, had no effect on the fertility and reproductive function of male and female rats. However, the number of implantation sites and live embryos were significantly reduced in rats at the 1000 mcg/kg/day dose as compared to control. The number of dead or resorbed embryos in the 1000 mcg/kg/day group was higher compared to the control group, but was not statistically significant. The 1000 mcg/kg/day dose in rats is approximately 169 times the highest recommended human dose of 48 mcg/day, based on body surface area.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C - Risk Summary
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with Amitiza in pregnant women. A dose dependent increase in fetal loss was observed in pregnant guinea pigs that received lubiprostone doses equivalent to 0.2 to 6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) based on body surface area (mg/m²). Animal studies did not show an increase in structural malformations. Amitiza should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Current available data suggest that miscarriage occurs in 15-18% of clinically recognized pregnancies, regardless of any drug exposure. Consider the risks and benefits of available therapies when treating a pregnant woman for chronic idiopathic constipation, opioid-induced constipation or irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.
In developmental toxicity studies, pregnant rats and rabbits received oral lubiprostone during organogenesis at doses up to approximately 338 times (rats) and approximately 34 times (rabbits) the maximum recommended human dose (MHRD) based on body surface area (mg/m²). Maximal animal doses were 2000 mcg/kg/day (rats) and 100 mcg/kg/day (rabbits). In rats, there were increased incidences of early resorptions and soft tissue malformations (situs inversus, cleft palate) at the 2000 mcg/kg/day dose; however, these effects were probably secondary to maternal toxicity. A dose-dependent increase in fetal loss occurred when guinea pigs received lubiprostone after the period of organogenesis, on days 40 to 53 of gestation, at daily oral doses of 1, 10, and 25 mcg/kg/day (approximately 0.2, 2 and 6 times the MRHD based on body surface area (mg/m²)). The potential of lubiprostone to cause fetal loss was also examined in pregnant Rhesus monkeys. Monkeys received lubiprostone post-organogenesis on gestation days 110 through 130 at daily oral doses of 10 and 30 mcg/kg/day (approximately 3 and 10 times the MHRD based on body surface area (mg/m²)). Fetal loss was noted in one monkey from the 10mcg/kg dose group, which is within normal historical rates for this species. There was no drug-related adverse effect seen in monkeys.
It is not known whether lubiprostone is excreted in human milk. In rats, neither lubiprostone nor its active metabolites were detectable in breast milk following oral administration of lubiprostone. Because lubiprostone increases fluid secretion in the intestine and intestinal motility, human milk-fed infants should be monitored for diarrhea. Caution should be exercised when Amitiza is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Chronic Idiopathic Constipation
The efficacy of Amitiza in the elderly ( ≥ 65 years of age) subpopulation was consistent with the efficacy in the overall study population. Of the total number of constipated patients treated in the dose-finding, efficacy, and long-term studies of Amitiza, 15.5% were ≥ 65 years of age, and 4.2% were ≥ 75 years of age. Elderly patients taking Amitiza 24 mcg twice daily experienced a lower rate of associated nausea compared to the overall study population taking Amitiza (19% vs. 29%, respectively).
The safety profile of Amitiza in the elderly ( ≥ 65 years of age) subpopulation (8.8% were ≥ 65 years of age and 1.6% were ≥ 75 years of age) was consistent with the safety profile in the overall study population. Clinical studies of Amitiza did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation
The safety profile of Amitiza in the elderly ( ≥ 65 years of age) subpopulation (8.0% were ≥ 65 years of age and 1.8% were ≥ 75 years of age) was consistent with the safety profile in the overall study population. Clinical studies of Amitiza did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients.
No dosage adjustment is required in patients with renal impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B) and severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) experienced markedly higher systemic exposure of lubiprostone active metabolite M3, when compared to normal subjects [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Clinical safety results demonstrated an increased incidence and severity of adverse events in subjects with greater severity of hepatic impairment.
In case of chronic idiopathic constipation or opioid-induced constipation indications, the starting dosage of Amitiza should be reduced in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. The starting dose of Amitiza should be reduced in all patients with severe hepatic impairment, regardless of the indication [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. No dosing adjustment is required in patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A).
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/20/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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