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Amrix

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Amrix

Amrix

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Cyclobenzaprine relieves skeletal muscle spasm of local origin without interfering with muscle function. Cyclobenzaprine has not been shown to be effective in muscle spasm due to central nervous system disease. In animal models, cyclobenzaprine reduced or abolished skeletal muscle hyperactivity. Animal studies indicate that cyclobenzaprine does not act at the neuromuscular junction or directly on skeletal muscle. Such studies show that cyclobenzaprine acts primarily within the central nervous system at the brain stem as opposed to the spinal cord level, although an overlapping action on the latter may contribute to its overall skeletal muscle relaxant activity. Evidence suggests that the net effect of cyclobenzaprine is a reduction of tonic somatic motor activity, influencing both gamma (γ) and alpha (α) motor systems. Pharmacological studies in animals demonstrated a similarity between the effects of cyclobenzaprine and the structurally related tricyclic antidepressants, including reserpine antagonism, norepinephrine potentiation, potent peripheral and central anticholinergic effects, and sedation. Cyclobenzaprine caused slight to moderate increase in heart rate in animals.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Following single-dose administration of AMRIX 15 mg and 30 mg in healthy adult subjects (n=15), Cmax, AUC0-168h and AUC0-∞ increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner from 15 mg to 30 mg. The time to peak plasma cyclobenzaprine concentration (Tmax) was 7 to 8 hours for both doses of AMRIX.

A food effect study conducted in healthy adult subjects (n=15) utilizing a single dose of AMRIX 30 mg demonstrated a statistically significant increase in bioavailability when AMRIX 30 mg was given with food relative to the fasted state. There was a 35% increase in peak plasma cyclobenzaprine concentration (Cmax) and a 20% increase in exposure (AUC0-168h and AUC0-∞) in the presence of food. No effect, however, was noted in Tmax or the shape of the mean plasma cyclobenzaprine concentration versus time profile. Cyclobenzaprine in plasma was first detectable in both the fed and fasted states at 1.5 hours.

In a multiple-dose study utilizing AMRIX 30 mg administered once daily for 7 days in a group of healthy adult subjects (n=35), a 2.5-fold accumulation of plasma cyclobenzaprine levels was noted at steady-state.

Metabolism and Excretion

Cyclobenzaprine is extensively metabolized and is excreted primarily as glucuronides via the kidney. Cytochromes P-450 3A4, 1A2, and, to a lesser extent, 2D6, mediate N-demethylation, one of the oxidative pathways for cyclobenzaprine. Cyclobenzaprine has an elimination half-life of 32 hours (range 8-37 hours; n=18); plasma clearance is 0.7 L/min following single dose administration of AMRIX.

Special Populations

Elderly

Although there were no notable differences in Cmax or Tmax, cyclobenzaprine plasma AUC is increased by 40% and the plasma half-life of cyclobenzaprine is prolonged in elderly subjects greater than 65 years of age (50 hours) after dosing with AMRIX compared to younger subjects 18 to 45 years of age (32 hours). Pharmacokinetic characteristics of cyclobenzaprine following multiple-dose administration of AMRIX in the elderly were not evaluated.

Hepatic Impairment

In a pharmacokinetic study of immediate-release cyclobenzaprine in 16 subjects with hepatic impairment (15 mild, 1 moderate per Child-Pugh score), both AUC and Cmax were approximately double the values seen in the healthy control group. The pharmacokinetics of cyclobenzaprine in subjects with severe hepatic impairment is not known.

Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

In a 67-week study with rats that received cyclobenzaprine at oral doses of 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg/day (3 to 15 times the MRHD on mg/m² basis), there were findings in the liver consisting of midzonal vacuolation with lipidosis for males and midzonal and centrilobular hepatocytic enlargement for females. In addition, there were findings of centrilobular coagulative necrosis. In the higher dose groups, these microscopic changes were seen after 26 weeks and even earlier in rats that died prior to 26 weeks; at lower doses, these changes were not seen until after 26 weeks.

In a 26-week study with Cynomolgus monkeys that received cyclobenzaprine at oral of doses of 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg/day, one monkey at 20 mg/kg/day (15 times the MRHD on mg/m² basis) was euthanized in week 17. Morbidity for this animal was attributed to findings of chronic pancreatitis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, and focal liver necrosis.

Clinical Studies

Efficacy was assessed in two double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled, placebo-controlled studies of identical design of AMRIX 15 mg and 30 mg taken once daily, between 6:00 and 7:00 PM, cyclobenzaprine 10 mg three times a day, or placebo for 14 days in patients with muscle spasms associated with acute painful musculoskeletal conditions.

There were significant differences in the primary efficacy analysis, the patient's rating of medication helpfulness, between the AMRIX 15 mg group and the placebo group at Days 4 and 14 in one study and between the AMRIX 30 mg group and the placebo group at Day 4 in the second study.

Table 2: Patients' Rating of Medication Helpfulness - Study 1*

  Day 4 Day 14
Number of Patients (%) Number of Patients (%)
Placebo
(N = 64)
AMRIX 30 mg
(N = 64)
Placebo
(N = 64)
AMRIX 30 mg
(N = 64)
Excellent 1 (2%) 3 (5%) 12 (19%) 15 (23%)
Very Good 5 (8%) 13 (20%) 9 (14%) 19 (30%)
Good 15 (23%) 22 (34%) 10 (16%) 15 (23%)
Fair 24 (38%) 20 (31%) 16 (25%) 10 (16%)
Poor 10 (16%) 5 (8%) 9 (14%) 4 (6%)
Missing 9 (14%) 1 (2%) 8 (13%) 1 (2%)
*Percentages are rounded to the nearest whole percent.

Table 3: Patients' Rating of Medication Helpfulness - Study 2*

  Day 4 Day 14
Number of Patients (%) Number of Patients (%)
Placebo
(N = 64)
AMRIX 15 mg
(N = 63)
Placebo
(N = 64)
AMRIX 15 mg
(N = 63)
Excellent 1 (2%) 2 (3%) 10 (16%) 13 (21%)
Very Good 10 (16%) 12 (19%) 12 (19%) 21 (33%)
Good 14 (22%) 21 (33%) 13 (20%) 9 (14%)
Fair 16 (25%) 17 (27%) 14 (22%) 10 (16%)
Poor 19 (30%) 6 (10%) 12 (19%) 5 (8%)
Missing 4 (6%) 5 (8%) 3 (5%) 5 (8%)
*Percentages are rounded to the nearest whole percent.

In addition, one of the two studies demonstrated significant differences between the AMRIX 30 mg group and the placebo group in terms of patient-rated relief from local pain due to muscle spasm at Day 4 and Day 8, in patient-rated restriction of movement at Day 4 and Day 8, and in patient-rated global impression of change at Day 4, Day 8, and Day 14.

In both studies, there were no significant treatment differences between the AMRIX treatment groups and the placebo group in physician's global assessment, patient-rated restriction in activities of daily living, or quality of nighttime sleep.

Last reviewed on RxList: 6/20/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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