"Nov. 2, 2012 -- Safety steps taken in the wake of the fungal meningitis outbreak have worsened drug shortages, raising questions about whether the U.S. must choose between the safety and the availability of crucial medicines.
The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported with cyclobenzaprine when used in combination with other drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), tramadol, bupropion, meperidine, verapamil, or monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. The concomitant use of AMRIX with MAO inhibitors is contraindicated (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., confusion, agitation, hallucinations), autonomic instability (e.g., diaphoresis, tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular abnormalities (e.g., tremor, ataxia, hyperreflexia, clonus, muscle rigidity), and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Treatment with AMRIX and any concomitant serotonergic agents should be discontinued immediately if the above reactions occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated. If concomitant treatment with AMRIX and other serotonergic drugs is clinically warranted, careful observation is advised, particularly during treatment initiation or dose increases (see PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).
AMRIX is closely related to the tricyclic antidepressants, e.g., amitriptyline and imipramine. In short term studies for indications other than muscle spasm associated with acute musculoskeletal conditions, and usually at doses somewhat greater than those recommended for skeletal muscle spasm, some of the more serious central nervous system reactions noted with the tricyclic antidepressants have occurred (see WARNINGS, below, and ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Tricyclic antidepressants have been reported to produce arrhythmias, sinus tachycardia, prolongation of the conduction time leading to myocardial infarction and stroke. AMRIX may enhance the effects of alcohol, barbiturates, and other CNS depressants.
As a result of a two-fold higher cyclobenzaprine plasma levels in subjects with mild hepatic impairment, as compared to healthy subjects, following administration of immediate-release cyclobenzaprine and because there is limited dosing flexibility with AMRIX, use of AMRIX is not recommended in subjects with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment.
As a result of a 40% increase in cyclobenzaprine plasma levels and a 56% increase in plasma half-life following administration of AMRIX in elderly subjects as compared to young adults, use of AMRIX is not recommended in elderly.
Because of its atropine-like action, AMRIX should be used with caution in patients with a history of urinary retention, angle-closure glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, and in patients taking anticholinergic medication.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
In rats treated with cyclobenzaprine for up to 67 weeks at doses of approximately 5 to 40 times the maximum recommended human dose, pale, sometimes enlarged, livers were noted and there was a dose-related hepatocyte vacuolation with lipidosis. In the higher dose groups, this microscopic change was seen after 26 weeks and even earlier in rats that died prior to 26 weeks; at lower doses, the change was not seen until after 26 weeks. Cyclobenzaprine did not affect the onset, incidence, or distribution of neoplasia in an 81-week study in the mouse or in a 105-week study in the rat. At oral doses of up to 10 times the human dose, cyclobenzaprine did not adversely affect the reproductive performance or fertility of male or female rats. Cyclobenzaprine did not demonstrate mutagenic activity in the male mouse at dose levels of up to 20 times the human dose.
A battery of mutagenicity tests using bacterial and mammalian systems for point mutations and cytogenic effects have provided no evidence for a mutagenic potential for cyclobenzaprine. An in vivo mouse bone micronucleus assay, an assessment of chromosomal aberrations (Chinese hamster ovary), and a mammalian microsome reverse mutation assay were negative.
Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats, mice, and rabbits at doses up to 20 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to cyclobenzaprine. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because cyclobenzaprine is closely related to the tricyclic antidepressants, some of which are known to be excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when AMRIX is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness of AMRIX has not been studied in pediatric patients.
Use in the Elderly
The plasma concentration and half-life of cyclobenzaprine are substantially increased in the elderly when compared to the general patient population (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics, Special Populations, Elderly). Accordingly, AMRIX should not be used in the elderly.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/26/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Amrix Information
Amrix - User Reviews
Amrix User Reviews
Now you can gain knowledge and insight about a drug treatment with Patient Discussions.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Chronic Pain/Back Pain
Find tips and advances in treatment.