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Clinical Studies Experience
The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label:
- Risk of fetal/neonatal morbidity and mortality [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Head and neck angioedema [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hypotension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Amturnide has been evaluated for safety in 1155 patients treated with Amturnide, including 182 patients for over 1 year.
In a short-term controlled trial, there were 60.5% males, 84.1% Caucasians, 10% Blacks, 6.4% Hispanics, and 19.1% who were ≥ 65 years of age. In this study, the overall incidence of adverse events on therapy with Amturnide was similar to that observed with the individual components. The overall frequency of adverse events was similar between men and women and Black and White patients. Discontinuation of therapy because of a clinical adverse event in this study occurred in 3.6% of patients treated with Amturnide versus 2.4% in aliskiren/amlodipine, 0.7% in aliskiren/HCTZ, and 2.7% in amlodipine/HCTZ.
Table 1: Adverse events in a short-term controlled trial
that occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with Amturnide
In a long-term safety trial, the safety profile was similar to that seen in the short-term controlled trial.
Aliskiren has been evaluated for safety in 6460 patients, including 1740 treated for longer than 6 months, and 1250 for longer than 1 year. In placebo-controlled clinical trials, discontinuation of therapy because of a clinical adverse event, including uncontrolled hypertension, occurred in 2.2% of patients treated with aliskiren, versus 3.5% of patients given placebo.
Two cases of angioedema with respiratory symptoms were reported with aliskiren use in the clinical studies. Two other cases of periorbital edema without respiratory symptoms were reported as possible angioedema and resulted in discontinuation. The rate of these angioedema cases in the completed studies was 0.06%.
In addition, 26 other cases of edema involving the face, hands, or whole body were reported with aliskiren use, including 4 leading to discontinuation.
In the placebo-controlled studies, however, the incidence of edema involving the face, hands, or whole body was 0.4% with aliskiren compared with 0.5% with placebo. In a long-term active-controlled study with aliskiren and HCTZ arms, the incidence of edema involving the face, hands, or whole body was 0.4% in both treatment arms.
Aliskiren produces dose-related gastrointestinal (GI) adverse reactions. Diarrhea was reported by 2.3% of patients at 300 mg, compared to 1.2% in placebo patients. In women and the elderly (age ≥ 65) increases in diarrhea rates were evident starting at a dose of 150 mg daily, with rates for these subgroups at 150 mg similar to those seen at 300 mg for men or younger patients (all rates about 2%). Other GI symptoms included abdominal pain, dyspepsia, and gastroesophageal reflux, although increased rates for abdominal pain and dyspepsia were distinguished from placebo only at 600 mg daily. Diarrhea and other GI symptoms were typically mild and rarely led to discontinuation.
Aliskiren was associated with a slight increase in cough in the placebo-controlled studies (1.1% for any aliskiren use versus 0.6% for placebo). In active-controlled trials with ACE inhibitor (ramipril, lisinopril) arms, the rates of cough for the aliskiren arms were about one-third to one-half the rates in the ACE inhibitor arms.
Other adverse reactions with increased rates for aliskiren compared to placebo included rash (1% versus 0.3%), elevated uric acid (0.4% versus 0.1%), gout (0.2% versus 0.1%), and renal stones (0.2% versus 0%).
Single episodes of tonic-clonic seizures with loss of consciousness were reported in 2 patients treated with aliskiren in the clinical trials. One patient had predisposing causes for seizures and had a negative electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebral imaging following the seizures; for the other patient, EEG and imaging results were not reported. Aliskiren was discontinued and there was no re-challenge in either case.
No clinically meaningful changes in vital signs or in ECG (including QTc interval) were observed in patients treated with aliskiren.
Amlodipine (Norvasc®) has been evaluated for safety in more than 11,000 patients in U.S. and foreign clinical trials. Other adverse events that have been reported at < 1% but > 0.1% of patients in controlled clinical trials or under conditions of open trials or marketing experience where a causal relationship is uncertain were:
**These events occurred in less than 1% in placebo-controlled trials, but the incidence of these side effects was between 1% and 2% in all multiple dose studies.
Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, thirst
Other events reported with amlodipine at a frequency of ≤ 0.1% of patients include: cardiac failure, pulse irregularity, extrasystoles, skin discoloration, urticaria, skin dryness, alopecia, dermatitis, muscle weakness, twitching, ataxia, hypertonia, migraine, cold and clammy skin, apathy, agitation, amnesia, gastritis, increased appetite, loose stools, rhinitis, dysuria, polyuria, parosmia, taste perversion, abnormal visual accommodation, and xerophthalmia. Other reactions occurred sporadically and cannot be distinguished from medications or concurrent disease states such as myocardial infarction and angina.
Other adverse reactions not listed above that have been reported with HCTZ, without regard to causality, are listed below:
Body as a Whole: weakness
Hypersensitivity: photosensitivity, urticaria, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), fever, respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, anaphylactic reactions
Metabolic: glycosuria, hyperuricemia
Musculoskeletal: muscle spasm
Nervous System/Psychiatric: restlessness
Skin: erythema multiforme including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis including toxic epidermal necrolysis
Clinical Laboratory Test Abnormalities
Clinical laboratory findings for Amturnide were obtained in a controlled trial of Amturnide administered at the maximal dose of 300/10/25 mg compared to maximal doses of dual therapies, i.e., aliskiren/amlodipine 300/10 mg, aliskiren/HCTZ 300/25 mg and amlodipine/HCTZ 10/25 mg.
RBC Count, Hemoglobin and Hematocrit
Small mean changes from baseline were seen in RBC count, hemoglobin and hematocrit in patients treated with Amturnide. This effect is also seen with other agents acting on the renin angiotensin system. In aliskiren monotherapy trials these decreases led to slight increases in rates of anemia compared to placebo (0.1% for any aliskiren use, 0.3% for aliskiren 600 mg daily, versus 0% for placebo). No patients discontinued Amturnide because of anemia.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)/Creatinine
No patients treated with Amturnide had elevations in BUN > 40 mg/dL or creatinine > 2.0 mg/dL.
Liver Function Tests
Occasional elevations (greater than 150% from baseline) in ALT (SGPT) were observed in 2.7% of patients treated with Amturnide, compared with 1.7-2.7% in patients treated with the dual combinations. No patients were discontinued due to abnormal liver function tests.
Serum Uric Acid
Uric acid increase > 50% from baseline was more commonly observed in patients treated with Amturnide (4.7%) compared with the dual combinations (0.4-2.8%). Gout was less commonly observed (0.3% in Amturnide-treated patients) and renal stones were not reported.
[See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of either aliskiren or amlodipine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:
Hypersensitivity: angioedema requiring airway management and hospitalization
Aliskiren: peripheral edema, Blood creatinine increased
Amlodipine: The following postmarketing event has been reported infrequently where a causal relationship is uncertain: gynecomastia. In postmarketing experience, jaundice and hepatic enzyme elevations (mostly consistent with cholestasis or hepatitis), in some cases severe enough to require hospitalization, have been reported in association with use of amlodipine.
Read the Amturnide (aliskiren, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide tablets) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »
No drug interaction studies have been conducted between Amturnide and other drugs. In a phase III sub-study, there was no clinically relevant change in the exposure of aliskiren, amlodipine, and HCTZ observed with Amturnide compared to the dual combinations of aliskiren and amlodipine, amlodipine and HCTZ, and aliskiren and HCTZ. Studies with the individual aliskiren, amlodipine, and HCTZ components are described below.
Cyclosporine: Avoid co-administration of cyclosporine with aliskiren.
Itraconazole: Avoid co-administration of itraconazole with aliskiren. [See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY.]
In clinical trials, amlodipine has been safely administered with thiazide diuretics, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, long-acting nitrates, sublingual nitroglycerin, digoxin, warfarin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and oral hypoglycemic drugs.
Cimetidine: Coadministration of amlodipine with cimetidine did not alter the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine.
Grapefruit juice: Coadministration of 240 mL of grapefruit juice with a single oral dose of amlodipine 10 mg in 20 healthy volunteers had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine.
Maalox® (antacid): Coadministration of the antacid Maalox with a single dose of amlodipine had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine.
Sildenafil: A single 100 mg dose of sildenafil in subjects with essential hypertension had no effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of amlodipine. When amlodipine and sildenafil were used in combination, each agent independently exerted its own blood pressure lowering effect.
Atorvastatin: Coadministration of multiple 10 mg doses of amlodipine with 80 mg of atorvastatin resulted in no significant change in the steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters of atorvastatin.
Digoxin: Coadministration of amlodipine with digoxin did not change serum digoxin levels or digoxin renal clearance in normal volunteers.
Ethanol (alcohol): Single and multiple 10 mg doses of amlodipine had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of ethanol.
Warfarin: Coadministration of amlodipine with warfarin did not change the warfarin prothrombin response time.
Simvastatin: Co-administration of multiple doses of 10 mg of amlodipine with 80 mg simvastatin resulted in a 77% increase in exposure to simvastatin compared to simvastatin alone. Limit the dose of simvastatin in patients on amlodipine to 20 mg daily.
When administered concurrently, the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics.
Alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics: Potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur.
Antidiabetic drugs (oral agents and insulin): Dosage adjustment of the antidiabetic drug may be required.
Other antihypertensive drugs: Additive effect or potentiation.
Cholestyramine and colestipol resins: Absorption of HCTZ is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Single doses of either cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind the HCTZ and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85% and 43%, respectively.
Pressor amines (e.g., norepinephrine): Possible decreased response to pressor amines but not sufficient to preclude their use.
Skeletal muscle relaxants, nondepolarizing (e.g., tubocurarine): Possible increased responsiveness to the muscle relaxants.
Lithium: Should not generally be given with diuretics. Diuretic agents reduce the renal clearance of lithium and increase the risk of lithium toxicity. Refer to the package insert for lithium before use of such preparation with Amturnide.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: In some patients, the administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of loop, potassium-sparing and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, when Amturnide and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are used concomitantly, observe the patient to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained.
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/15/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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