Anal Cancer (cont.)
In this Article
- Anal cancer facts*
- What is anal cancer?
- What are the risk factors for anal cancer?
- What are the signs and symptoms of anal cancer?
- How is anal cancer diagnosed?
- What affects the prognosis?
- How is the staging of anal cancer determined?
- What is recurrent anal cancer?
- What is the treatment for anal cancer?
- How does staging affect the treatment of anal cancer?
- What are the treatment options for recurrent anal cancer?
- Where can I find more information about anal cancer?
- Find a local Oncologist in your town
Signs of anal cancer include bleeding from the anus or rectum or a lump near the anus.
These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by anal cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:
- Bleeding from the anus or rectum.
- Pain or pressure in the area around the anus.
- Itching or discharge from the anus.
- A lump near the anus.
- A change in bowel habits.
Tests that examine the rectum and anus are used to detect (find) and diagnose anal cancer.
The following tests and procedures may be used:
Digital rectal exam (DRE). The doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the prostate to check for anything abnormal.
- Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
- Digital rectal examination (DRE): An exam of the anus and rectum. The doctor or nurse inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the lower part of the rectum to feel for lumps or anything else that seems unusual.
- Anoscopy: An exam of the anus and lower rectum using a short, lighted tube called an anoscope.
- Proctoscopy: An exam of the rectum using a short, lighted tube called a proctoscope.
- Endo-anal or endorectal ultrasound: A procedure in which an ultrasound transducer (probe) is inserted into the anus or rectum and used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram.
- Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. If an abnormal area is seen during the anoscopy, a biopsy may be done at that time.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 12/11/2014
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