Thomas P. Sokol, MD, FACS, FASCRS
Thomas P. Sokol, MD received his medical degree from the University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School in 1980. He went on to his general surgical residency at Harbor/UCLA Medical Center and then to the Carle Clinic/ University of Illinois for Fellowship Training in Colon and Rectal Surgery.
- Anal fissures facts
- What are anal fissures?
- What causes anal fissures?
- What are the symptoms of anal fissures?
- How are anal fissures diagnosed and evaluated?
- How are anal fissures treated?
- Patient Comments: Anal Fissure - Effective Treatments
- Patient Comments: Anal Fissure - Diagnosis
- Patient Comments: Anal Fissure - Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Anal Fissure - Causes
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Anal fissures facts
- Anal fissures are cracks or tears in the anus and anal canal. They may be acute or chronic.
- Anal fissures are caused primarily by trauma, but several non-traumatic diseases are associated with anal fissures and should be suspected if fissures occur in unusual locations.
- The primary symptom of anal fissures is pain during and following bowel movements. Bleeding, itching, and a malodorous discharge also may occur.
- Anal fissures are diagnosed and evaluated by visual inspection of the anus and anal canal. Endoscopy and, less commonly, gastrointestinal X-rays may be necessary.
- Anal fissures are initially treated conservatively by adding bulk to the stool, softening the stool, consuming a high fiber diet, avoiding "sharp" or poorly digested foods, and utilizing sitz baths.
- Ointments containing anesthetics, steroids, nitroglycerin, and calcium channel blocking drugs (CCBs) are used for treating anal fissures that fail to heal with less conservative management.
- Injections of botulinum toxin may be effective when ointments are not effective. (The cost of treatment would be substantially reduced if the toxin were packaged in smaller doses.)
- Surgery by lateral sphincterotomy is the gold standard for curing anal fissures. Because of complications, however, it is reserved for patients who are intolerant of non-surgical treatments or in whom non-surgical treatments have proven to be ineffective.
What are anal fissures?
An anal fissure is a cut or tear occurring in the anus (the opening through which stool passes out of the body) that extends upwards into the anal canal. Fissures are a common condition of the anus and anal canal and are responsible for 6% to 15% of the visits to a colon and rectal (colorectal) surgeon. They affect men and women equally and both the young and the old. Fissures usually cause pain during bowel movements that often is severe. Anal fissure is the most common cause of rectal bleeding in infancy.
Anal fissures occur in the specialized tissue that lines the anus and anal canal, called anoderm. At a line just inside the anus--referred to as the anal verge or intersphincteric groove--the skin (dermis) of the inner buttocks changes to anoderm. Unlike skin, anoderm has no hairs, sweat glands, or sebaceous (oil) glands and contains a larger number of somatic sensory nerves that sense light touch and pain. (The abundance of nerves explains why anal fissures are so painful.) The hairless, gland-less, extremely sensitive anoderm continues for the entire length of the anal canal until it meets the demarcating line for the rectum, called the dentate line. (The rectum is the distal 15 cm of the colon that lies just above the anus and just below the sigmoid colon.)
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