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Mechanism Of Action
ANORO ELLIPTA contains both umeclidinium and vilanterol. The mechanisms of action described below for the individual components apply to ANORO ELLIPTA. These drugs represent 2 different classes of medications (an anticholinergic and a LABA) that have different effects on clinical and physiological indices.
Umeclidinium is a long-acting antimuscarinic agent, which is often referred to as an anticholinergic. It has similar affinity to the subtypes of muscarinic receptors M1 to M5. In the airways, it exhibits pharmacological effects through inhibition of M3 receptor at the smooth muscle leading to bronchodilation. The competitive and reversible nature of antagonism was shown with human and animal origin receptors and isolated organ preparations. In preclinical in vitro as well as in vivo studies, prevention of methacholine and acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstrictive effects was dose-dependent and lasted longer than 24 hours. The clinical relevance of these findings is unknown. The bronchodilation following inhalation of umeclidinium is predominantly a site-specific effect.
Vilanterol is a LABA. In vitro tests have shown the functional selectivity of vilanterol was similar to salmeterol. The clinical relevance of this in vitro finding is unknown.
Although beta2-receptors are the predominant adrenergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle and beta1-receptors are the predominant receptors in the heart, there are also beta2-receptors in the human heart comprising 10% to 50% of the total beta-adrenergic receptors. The precise function of these receptors has not been established, but they raise the possibility that even highly selective beta2-agonists may have cardiac effects.
The pharmacologic effects of beta2-adrenergic agonist drugs, including vilanterol, are at least in part attributable to stimulation of intracellular adenyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Increased cyclic AMP levels cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and inhibition of release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity from cells, especially from mast cells.
Healthy Subjects: QTc interval prolongation was studied in a double-blind, multiple-dose, placebo- and positive-controlled crossover trial in 86 healthy subjects. The maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) difference in QTcF from placebo after baseline correction was 4.6 (7.1) ms and 8.2 (10.7) ms for umeclidinium/vilanterol 125 mcg/25 mcg and umeclidinium/vilanterol 500 mcg/100 mcg (8/4 times the recommended dosage), respectively.
A dose-dependent increase in heart rate was also observed. The maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) difference in heart rate from placebo after baseline correction was 8.8 (10.5) beats/min and 20.5 (22.3) beats/min seen 10 minutes after dosing for umeclidinium/vilanterol 125 mcg/25 mcg and umeclidinium/vilanterol 500 mcg/100 mcg, respectively.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The effect of ANORO ELLIPTA on cardiac rhythm in subjects diagnosed with COPD was assessed using 24-hour Holter monitoring in 6- and 12-month trials: 53 subjects received ANORO ELLIPTA, 281 subjects received umeclidinium/vilanterol 125 mcg/25 mcg, and 182 subjects received placebo. No clinically meaningful effects on cardiac rhythm were observed.
Linear pharmacokinetics was observed for umeclidinium (62.5 to 500 mcg) and vilanterol (25 to 100 mcg).
Umeclidinium: Umeclidinium plasma levels may not predict therapeutic effect. Following inhaled administration of umeclidinium in healthy subjects, Cmax occurred at 5 to 15 minutes. Umeclidinium is mostly absorbed from the lung after inhaled doses with minimum contribution from oral absorption. Following repeat dosing of inhaled ANORO ELLIPTA, steady state was achieved within 14 days with up to 1.8-fold accumulation.
Vilanterol: Vilanterol plasma levels may not predict therapeutic effect. Following inhaled administration of vilanterol in healthy subjects, Cmax occurred at 5 to 15 minutes. Vilanterol is mostly absorbed from the lung after inhaled doses with negligible contribution from oral absorption. Following repeat dosing of inhaled ANORO ELLIPTA, steady state was achieved within 14 days with up to 1.7-fold accumulation.
Umeclidinium: Following intravenous administration to healthy subjects, the mean volume of distribution was 86 L. In vitro plasma protein binding in human plasma was on average 89%.
Vilanterol: Following intravenous administration to healthy subjects, the mean volume of distribution at steady state was 165 L. In vitro plasma protein binding in human plasma was on average 94%.
Umeclidinium: In vitro data showed that umeclidinium is primarily metabolized by the enzyme cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and is a substrate for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter. The primary metabolic routes for umeclidinium are oxidative (hydroxylation, O-dealkylation) followed by conjugation (e.g., glucuronidation), resulting in a range of metabolites with either reduced pharmacological activity or for which the pharmacological activity has not been established. Systemic exposure to the metabolites is low.
Vilanterol: In vitro data showed that vilanterol is metabolized principally by CYP3A4 and is a substrate for the P-gp transporter. Vilanterol is metabolized to a range of metabolites with significantly reduced β1- and β2-agonist activity.
Umeclidinium: Following intravenous dosing with radio-labeled umeclidinium, mass balance showed 58% of the radio-label in the feces and 22% in the urine. The excretion of the drug-related material in the feces following intravenous dosing indicated elimination in the bile. Following oral dosing to healthy male subjects, radio-label recovered in feces was 92% of the total dose and that in urine was less than 1% of the total dose, suggesting negligible oral absorption. The effective half-life after once-daily dosing is 11 hours.
Vilanterol: Following oral administration of radio-labeled vilanterol, mass balance showed 70% of the radio-label in the urine and 30% in the feces. The effective half-life for vilanterol, as determined from inhalation administration of multiple doses, is 11 hours.
The effects of renal and hepatic impairment and other intrinsic factors on the pharmacokinetics of umeclidinium and vilanterol are shown in Figure 1. Population pharmacokinetic analysis showed no evidence of a clinically significant effect of age (40 to 93 years) (see Figure 1), gender (69% male) (see Figure 1), inhaled corticosteroid use (48%), or weight (34 to 161 kg) on systemic exposure of either umeclidinium or vilanterol. In addition, there was no evidence of a clinically significant effect of race.
Figure 1: Impact of Intrinsic Factors on the
Pharmacokinetics (PK) of Umeclidinium and Vilanterol
Hepatic Impairment: The impact of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of ANORO ELLIPTA has been evaluated in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score of 7-9). There was no evidence of an increase in systemic exposure to either umeclidinium or vilanterol (Cmax and AUC) (see Figure 1). There was no evidence of altered protein binding in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects. ANORO ELLIPTA has not been evaluated in subjects with severe hepatic impairment.
Renal Impairment: The pharmacokinetics of ANORO ELLIPTA has been evaluated in subjects with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min). Umeclidinium systemic exposure was not increased and vilanterol systemic exposure (AUC(0-24)) was 56% higher in subjects with severe renal impairment compared with healthy subjects (see Figure 1). There was no evidence of altered protein binding in subjects with severe renal impairment compared with healthy subjects.
When umeclidinium and vilanterol were administered in combination by the inhaled route, the pharmacokinetic parameters for each component were similar to those observed when each active substance was administered separately.
Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 3A4: Vilanterol is a substrate of CYP3A4. A double-blind, repeat-dose, 2-way crossover drug interaction trial was conducted in healthy subjects to investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of vilanterol 25 mcg as an inhalation powder with ketoconazole 400 mg. The plasma concentrations of vilanterol were higher after single and repeated doses when coadministered with ketoconazole than with placebo (see Figure 2). The increase in vilanterol exposure was not associated with an increase in beta-agonist–related systemic effects on heart rate or blood potassium.
Inhibitors of P-glycoprotein Transporter: Umeclidinium and vilanterol are both substrates of P-gp. The effect of the moderate P-gp transporter inhibitor verapamil (240 mg once daily) on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of umeclidinium and vilanterol was assessed in healthy subjects. No effect on umeclidinium or vilanterol Cmax was observed; however, an approximately 1.4-fold increase in umeclidinium AUC was observed with no effect on vilanterol AUC (see Figure 2).
Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 2D6: In vitro metabolism of umeclidinium is mediated primarily by CYP2D6. However, no clinically meaningful difference in systemic exposure to umeclidinium (500 mcg) (8 times the approved dose) was observed following repeat daily inhaled dosing in CYP2D6 normal (ultrarapid, extensive, and intermediate metabolizers) and poor metabolizer subjects (see Figure 1).
Figure 2: Impact of Extrinsic Factors on the
Pharmacokinetics (PK) of Umeclidinium and Vilanterol
The safety and efficacy of ANORO ELLIPTA were evaluated in a clinical development program that included 6 dose-ranging trials, 4 lung function trials of 6 months' duration (2 placebo-controlled and 2 active-controlled), two 12-week crossover trials, and a 12-month long-term safety trial. The efficacy of ANORO ELLIPTA is based primarily on the dose-ranging trials in 1,908 subjects with COPD or asthma and the 2 placebo-controlled confirmatory trials with additional support from the 2 active-controlled and 2 crossover trials in 5,388 subjects with COPD.
Dose selection for ANORO ELLIPTA for COPD was based on dose-ranging trials for the individual components, vilanterol and umeclidinium. Based on the findings from these studies, once-daily doses of umeclidinium/vilanterol 62.5 mcg/25 mcg and umeclidinium/vilanterol 125 mcg/25 mcg were evaluated in the confirmatory COPD trials. ANORO ELLIPTA is not indicated for asthma.
Dose selection for umeclidinium in COPD was supported by a 7-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial evaluating 4 doses of umeclidinium (15.6 to 125 mcg) or placebo dosed once daily in the morning in 163 subjects with COPD. A dose ordering was observed, with the 62.5- and 125-mcg doses demonstrating larger improvements in FEV1 over 24 hours compared with the lower doses of 15.6 and 31.25 mcg (Figure 3).
The differences in trough FEV1 from baseline after 7 days for placebo and the 15.6-, 31.25-, 62.5-, and 125-mcg doses were -74 mL (95% CI: -118, -31), 38 mL (95% CI: -6, 83), 27 mL (95% CI: -18, 72), 49 mL (95% CI: 6, 93), and 109 mL (95% CI: 65, 152), respectively. Two additional dose-ranging trials in subjects with COPD demonstrated minimal additional benefit at doses above 125 mcg. The dose-ranging results supported the evaluation of 2 doses of umeclidinium, 62.5 and 125 mcg, in the confirmatory COPD trials to further assess dose response.
Evaluations of dosing interval by comparing once- and twice-daily dosing supported selection of a once-daily dosing interval for further evaluation in the confirmatory COPD trials.
Figure 3: Adjusted Mean Change From Baseline in
Post-Dose Serial FEV1 (mL) on Days 1 and 7
Dose selection for vilanterol in COPD was supported by a 28-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial evaluating 5 doses of vilanterol (3 to 50 mcg) or placebo dosed in the morning in 602 subjects with COPD. Results demonstrated dose-related increases in FEV1 compared with placebo at Day 1 and Day 28 (Figure 4).
Figure 4: Adjusted Mean Change From Baseline in
Post-Dose Serial FEV1 (0-24 hr, mL) on Days 1 and 28
The differences in trough FEV1 after Day 28 from baseline for placebo and the 3-, 6.25-, 12.5-, 25-, and 50-mcg doses were 29 mL (95% CI: -8, 66), 120 mL (95% CI: 83, 158), 127 mL (95% CI: 90, 164), 138 mL (95% CI: 101, 176), 166 mL (95% CI: 129, 203), and 194 mL (95% 19 CI: 156, 231), respectively. These results supported the evaluation of vilanterol 25 mcg in the confirmatory COPD trials.
Dose-ranging trials in subjects with asthma evaluated doses from 3 to 50 mcg and 12.5 mcg once-daily versus 6.25 mcg twice-daily dosing frequency. The results supported the selection of the vilanterol 25 mcg once-daily dose for further evaluation in the confirmatory COPD trials.
The clinical development program for ANORO ELLIPTA included two 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials; two 6-month active-controlled trials; and two 12-week crossover trials in subjects with COPD designed to evaluate the efficacy of ANORO ELLIPTA on lung function. The 6-month trials treated 4,733 subjects that had a clinical diagnosis of COPD, were 40 years of age or older, had a history of smoking greater than or equal to 10 pack-years, had a post-albuterol FEV1 less than or equal to 70% of predicted normal values, had a ratio of FEV1/FVC of less than 0.7, and had a Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) score greater than or equal to 2. Of the 4,713 subjects included in the efficacy analysis, 68% were male and 84% were Caucasian. They had a mean age of 63 years and an average smoking history of 45 pack-years, with 50% identified as current smokers. At screening, the mean post-bronchodilator percent predicted FEV1 was 48% (range: 13% to 76%), the mean post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio was 0.47 (range: 0.13 to 0.78), and the mean percent reversibility was 14% (range: -36% to 109%).
Trial 1 evaluated ANORO ELLIPTA (umeclidinium/vilanterol 62.5 mcg/25 mcg), umeclidinium 62.5 mcg, vilanterol 25 mcg, and placebo. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in trough (predose) FEV1 at Day 169 (defined as the mean of the FEV1 values obtained at 23 and 24 hours after the previous dose on Day 168) compared with placebo, umeclidinium 62.5 mcg, and vilanterol 25 mcg. The comparison of ANORO ELLIPTA with umeclidinium 62.5 mcg and vilanterol 25 mcg was assessed to evaluate the contribution of the individual comparators to ANORO ELLIPTA. ANORO ELLIPTA demonstrated a larger increase in mean change from baseline in trough (predose) FEV1 relative to placebo, umeclidinium 62.5 mcg, and vilanterol 25 mcg (Table 2).
Table 2: Least Squares (LS) Mean Change From Baseline
in Trough FEV1 (mL) at Day 169 in the Intent-to-Treat Population (Trial 1)
|Treatment||n||Trough FEV1 (mL) at Day 169|
|Placebo (95% CI)
n = 280
|Umeclidinium 62.5 mcga (95% CI)
n = 418
|Vilanterol 25 mcga (95% CI)
n = 421
|ANORO ELLIPTA||413||167 (128, 207)||52 (17, 87)||95 (60, 130)|
|n = Number in intent-to-treat population.
a The umeclidinium and vilanterol comparators used the same inhaler and excipients as ANORO ELLIPTA.
Trial 2 had a similar study design as Trial 1 but evaluated umeclidinium/vilanterol 125 mcg/25 mcg, umeclidinium 125 mcg, vilanterol 25 mcg, and placebo. Results for umeclidinium/vilanterol 125 mcg/25 mcg in Trial 2 were similar to those observed for ANORO ELLIPTA in Trial 1.
Results from the two active-controlled trials and the two 12-week trials provided additional support for the efficacy of ANORO ELLIPTA in terms of change from baseline in trough FEV1 compared with the single-ingredient comparators and placebo.
Serial spirometric evaluations throughout the 24-hour dosing interval were performed in a subset of subjects (n = 197) at Days 1, 84, and 168 in Trial 1. Results from Trial 1 at Day 1 and Day 168 are shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5: Least Squares (LS) Mean Change From Baseline
in FEV1 (mL) Over Time (0-24 h) on Days 1 and 168 (Trial 1 Subset Population)
The peak FEV1 was defined as the maximum FEV1 recorded within 6 hours after the dose of trial medicine on Days 1, 28, 84, and 168 (measurements recorded at 15 and 30 minutes and 1, 3, and 6 hours). The mean peak FEV1 improvement from baseline for ANORO ELLIPTA compared with placebo at Day 1 and at Day 168 was 167 and 224 mL, respectively. The median time to onset on Day 1, defined as a 100-mL increase from baseline in FEV1, was 27 minutes in subjects receiving ANORO ELLIPTA.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/12/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Anoro Ellipta Information
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