"NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - In patients with rapidly recurrent nonvasculitic laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS), low-dose methotrexate may be an effective adjunct to surgery, researchers say.
In email to Reuters Health, Dr. David E. Rosow"...
Data from a large placebo-controlled trial in subjects with asthma showed that LABA may increase the risk of asthma-related death. Data are not available to determine whether the rate of death in patients with COPD is increased by LABA.
A 28-week, placebo-controlled, US trial comparing the safety of another LABA (salmeterol) with placebo, each added to usual asthma therapy, showed an increase in asthma-related deaths in subjects receiving salmeterol (13/13,176 in subjects treated with salmeterol vs. 3/13,179 in subjects treated with placebo; relative risk: 4.37 [95% CI: 1.25, 15.34]). The increased risk of asthma-related death is considered a class effect of LABA, including vilanterol, one of the active ingredients in ANORO ELLIPTA.
No trial adequate to determine whether the rate of asthma-related death is increased in subjects treated with ANORO ELLIPTA has been conducted. The safety and efficacy of ANORO ELLIPTA in patients with asthma have not been established. ANORO ELLIPTA is not indicated for the treatment of asthma.
Deterioration Of Disease And Acute Episodes
ANORO ELLIPTA should not be initiated in patients during rapidly deteriorating or potentially life-threatening episodes of COPD. ANORO ELLIPTA has not been studied in subjects with acutely deteriorating COPD. The initiation of ANORO ELLIPTA in this setting is not appropriate.
ANORO ELLIPTA should not be used for the relief of acute symptoms, i.e., as rescue therapy for the treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm. ANORO ELLIPTA has not been studied in the relief of acute symptoms and extra doses should not be used for that purpose. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist.
When beginning treatment with ANORO ELLIPTA, patients who have been taking oral or inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) should be instructed to discontinue the regular use of these drugs and to use them only for symptomatic relief of acute respiratory symptoms. When prescribing ANORO ELLIPTA, the healthcare provider should also prescribe an inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist and instruct the patient on how it should be used. Increasing inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist use is a signal of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is indicated.
COPD may deteriorate acutely over a period of hours or chronically over several days or longer. If ANORO ELLIPTA no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction; the patient's inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist becomes less effective; or the patient needs more short-acting beta2-agonist than usual, these may be markers of deterioration of disease. In this setting a re-evaluation of the patient and the COPD treatment regimen should be undertaken at once. Increasing the daily dose of ANORO ELLIPTA beyond the recommended dose is not appropriate in this situation.
Excessive Use Of ANORO ELLIPTA And Use With Other Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists
ANORO ELLIPTA should not be used more often than recommended, at higher doses than recommended, or in conjunction with other medicines containing LABA, as an overdose may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Patients using ANORO ELLIPTA should not use another medicine containing a LABA (e.g., salmeterol, formoterol fumarate, arformoterol tartrate, indacaterol) for any reason.
Drug Interactions With Strong Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors
Caution should be exercised when considering the coadministration of ANORO ELLIPTA with long-term ketoconazole and other known strong cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir, clarithromycin, conivaptan, indinavir, itraconazole, lopinavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, saquinavir, telithromycin, troleandomycin, voriconazole) because increased cardiovascular adverse effects may occur [see DRUG INTERACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
As with other inhaled medicines, ANORO ELLIPTA can produce paradoxical bronchospasm, which may be life threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs following dosing with ANORO ELLIPTA, it should be treated immediately with an inhaled, short-acting bronchodilator; ANORO ELLIPTA should be discontinued immediately; and alternative therapy should be instituted.
Hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, and urticaria may occur after administration of ANORO ELLIPTA. Discontinue ANORO ELLIPTA if such reactions occur. There have been reports of anaphylactic reactions in patients with severe milk protein allergy after inhalation of other powder products containing lactose; therefore, patients with severe milk protein allergy should not use ANORO ELLIPTA [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Vilanterol, like other beta2-agonists, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients as measured by increases in pulse rate, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, or symptoms [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. If such effects occur, ANORO ELLIPTA may need to be discontinued. In addition, beta-agonists have been reported to produce electrocardiographic changes, such as flattening of the T wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression, although the clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
ANORO ELLIPTA, like all medicines containing sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with convulsive disorders or thyrotoxicosis and in those who are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Doses of the related beta2-adrenoceptor agonist albuterol, when administered intravenously, have been reported to aggravate preexisting diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis.
Worsening Of Narrow-Angle Glaucoma
ANORO ELLIPTA should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma. Prescribers and patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of acute narrow-angle glaucoma (e.g., eye pain or discomfort, blurred vision, visual halos or colored images in association with red eyes from conjunctival congestion and corneal edema). Instruct patients to consult a physician immediately if any of these signs or symptoms develops.
Worsening Of Urinary Retention
ANORO ELLIPTA should be used with caution in patients with urinary retention. Prescribers and patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of urinary retention (e.g., difficulty passing urine, painful urination), especially in patients with prostatic hyperplasia or bladder-neck obstruction. Instruct patients to consult a physician immediately if any of these signs or symptoms develops.
Hypokalemia And Hyperglycemia
Beta-adrenergic agonist medicines may produce significant hypokalemia in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting, which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. The decrease in serum potassium is usually transient, not requiring supplementation. Beta-agonist medicines may produce transient hyperglycemia in some patients. In 4 clinical trials of 6-month duration evaluating ANORO ELLIPTA in subjects with COPD, there was no evidence of a treatment effect on serum glucose or potassium.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide and Instructions for Use).
Inform patients that LABA, such as vilanterol, one of the active ingredients in ANORO ELLIPTA, increase the risk of asthma-related death. ANORO ELLIPTA is not indicated for the treatment of asthma.
Not for Acute Symptoms
Inform patients that ANORO ELLIPTA is not meant to relieve acute symptoms of COPD and extra doses should not be used for that purpose. Advise patients to treat acute symptoms with an inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist such as albuterol. Provide patients with such medicine and instruct them in how it should be used.
Instruct patients to seek medical attention immediately if they experience any of the following:
- Decreasing effectiveness of inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists
- Need for more inhalations than usual of inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists
- Significant decrease in lung function as outlined by the physician
Tell patients they should not stop therapy with ANORO ELLIPTA without physician/provider guidance since symptoms may recur after discontinuation.
Do Not Use Additional Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists
Instruct patients not to use other medicines containing a LABA. Patients should not use more than the recommended once-daily dose of ANORO ELLIPTA.
Instruct patients who have been taking inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists on a regular basis to discontinue the regular use of these products and use them only for the symptomatic relief of acute symptoms.
As with other inhaled medicines, ANORO ELLIPTA can cause paradoxical bronchospasm. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, instruct patients to discontinue ANORO ELLIPTA and contact their healthcare provider right away.
Risks Associated With Beta-Agonist Therapy
Worsening Of Narrow-Angle Glaucoma
Instruct patients to be alert for signs and symptoms of acute narrow-angle glaucoma (e.g., eye pain or discomfort, blurred vision, visual halos or colored images in association with red eyes from conjunctival congestion and corneal edema). Instruct patients to consult a physician immediately if any of these signs or symptoms develops.
Worsening Of Urinary Retention
Instruct patients to be alert for signs and symptoms of urinary retention (e.g., difficulty passing urine, painful urination). Instruct patients to consult a physician immediately if any of these signs or symptoms develops.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No studies of carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or impairment of fertility were conducted with ANORO ELLIPTA; however, studies are available for the individual components, umeclidinium and vilanterol, as described below.
Umeclidinium produced no treatment-related increases in the incidence of tumors in 2-year inhalation studies in rats and mice at inhaled doses up to 137 and 295/200 mcg/kg/day (male/female), respectively (approximately 20 and 25/20 times the MRHDID in adults on an AUC basis, respectively).
No evidence of impairment of fertility was observed in male and female rats at subcutaneous doses up to 180 mcg/kg/day and inhaled doses up to 294 mcg/kg/day, respectively (approximately 100 and 50 times, respectively, the MRHDID in adults on an AUC basis).
In a 2-year carcinogenicity study in mice, vilanterol caused a statistically significant increase in ovarian tubulostromal adenomas in females at an inhalation dose of 29,500 mcg/kg/day (approximately 7,800 times the MRHDID in adults on an AUC basis). No increase in tumors was seen at an inhalation dose of 615 mcg/kg/day (approximately 210 times the MRHDID in adults on an AUC basis).
In a 2-year carcinogenicity study in rats, vilanterol caused statistically significant increases in mesovarian leiomyomas in females and shortening of the latency of pituitary tumors at inhalation doses greater than or equal to 84.4 mcg/kg/day (greater than or equal to approximately 20 times the MRHDID in adults on an AUC basis). No tumors were seen at an inhalation dose of 10.5 mcg/kg/day (approximately 1 time the MRHDID in adults on an AUC basis).
These tumor findings in rodents are similar to those reported previously for other beta-adrenergic agonist drugs. The relevance of these findings to human use is unknown.
Vilanterol tested negative in the following genotoxicity assays: the in vitro Ames assay, in vivo rat bone marrow micronucleus assay, in vivo rat unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay, and in vitro Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell assay. Vilanterol tested equivocal in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay.
No evidence of impairment of fertility was observed in reproductive studies conducted in male and female rats at inhaled vilanterol doses up to 31,500 and 37,100 mcg/kg/day, respectively (approximately 12,000 and 14,500 times, respectively, the MRHDID in adults on a mcg/m² basis).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C. There are no adequate and well-controlled trials of ANORO ELLIPTA or its individual components, umeclidinium and vilanterol, in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, ANORO ELLIPTA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Women should be advised to contact their physicians if they become pregnant while taking ANORO ELLIPTA.
Umeclidinium: There was no evidence of teratogenic effects in rats and rabbits at approximately 50 and 200 times, respectively, the MRHDID (maximum recommended human daily inhaled dose) in adults (on an AUC basis at maternal inhaled doses up to 278 mcg/kg/day in rats and at maternal subcutaneous doses up to 180 mcg/kg/day in rabbits).
Vilanterol: There were no teratogenic effects in rats and rabbits at approximately 13,000 and 70 times, respectively, the MRHDID in adults (on a mcg/m² basis at maternal inhaled doses up to 33,700 mcg/kg/day in rats and on an AUC basis at maternal inhaled doses up to 591 mcg/kg/day in rabbits). However, fetal skeletal variations were observed in rabbits at approximately 450 times the MRHDID in adults (on an AUC basis at maternal inhaled or subcutaneous doses of 5,740 or 300 mcg/kg/day, respectively). The skeletal variations included decreased or absent ossification in cervical vertebral centrum and metacarpals.10
Umeclidinium: There were no effects on perinatal and postnatal developments in rats at approximately 80 times the MRHDID in adults (on an AUC basis at maternal subcutaneous doses up to 180 mcg/kg/day).
Vilanterol: There were no effects on perinatal and postnatal developments in rats at approximately 3,900 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mcg/m² basis at maternal oral doses up to 10,000 mcg/kg/day).
Labor And Delivery
There are no adequate and well-controlled human trials that have investigated the effects of ANORO ELLIPTA during labor and delivery.
Because beta-agonists may potentially interfere with uterine contractility, ANORO ELLIPTA should be used during labor only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk.
It is not known whether ANORO ELLIPTA is excreted in human breast milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when ANORO ELLIPTA is administered to a nursing woman. Since there are no data from well-controlled human studies on the use of ANORO ELLIPTA by nursing mothers, based on the data for the individual components, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue ANORO ELLIPTA, taking into account the importance of ANORO ELLIPTA to the mother.
It is not known whether umeclidinium is excreted in human breast milk. However, administration to lactating rats at approximately 25 times the MRHDID in adults resulted in a quantifiable level of umeclidinium in 2 pups, which may indicate transfer of umeclidinium in milk.
It is not known whether vilanterol is excreted in human breast milk. However, other beta2-agonists have been detected in human milk.
ANORO ELLIPTA is not indicated for use in children. The safety and efficacy in pediatric patients have not been established.
Based on available data, no adjustment of the dosage of ANORO ELLIPTA in geriatric patients is necessary, but greater sensitivity in some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Clinical trials of ANORO ELLIPTA for COPD included 2,143 subjects aged 65 years and older and 478 subjects aged 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger subjects.
Patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score of 7-9) showed no relevant increases in Cmax or AUC, nor did protein binding differ between subjects with moderate hepatic impairment and their healthy controls. Studies in subjects with severe hepatic impairment have not been performed [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
There were no significant increases in either umeclidinium or vilanterol exposure in subjects with severe renal impairment (CrCl less than 30 mL/min) compared with healthy subjects. No dosage adjustment is required in patients with renal impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/7/2016
Additional Anoro Ellipta Information
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