Antimitochondrial Antibodies (cont.)
John M. Vierling, MD, FACP
John M. Vierling M.D. is Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, where he also serves as Director of Baylor Liver Health and Chief of Hepatology. In addition, he is the Director of Advanced Liver Therapies, a center devoted to clinical research in hepatobiliary diseases at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital. Dr. Vierling is board certified in internal medicine and gastroenterology and a Fellow of the American College of Physicians.
Leslie J. Schoenfield, MD, PhD
Dr. Schoenfield served as associate professor of medicine and consultant in gastroenterology on the faculty of the Mayo Clinic for seven years. He became a professor of medicine in residence at UCLA from 1972 to 1999 (now emeritus). He was the director of gastroenterology at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles for 25 years, where he received the chief resident's teaching award, the president's award, and the pioneer of medicine award.
In this Article
- What are antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA)?
- Do AMA cause the destruction of the bile ducts in PBC?
- How is the blood test for AMA done?
- What is the value of the AMA blood test?
How is the blood test for AMA done?
The most economical test for AMA applies diluted samples of a patient's serum onto tissue sections from rat stomach or kidney in the laboratory. (Remember that mitochondria are present in all cells, not just the cells of the liver and bile ducts.) Serum antibodies that attach (bind) to mitochondrial membranes within the tissue cells can then be observed with a microscope. The most dilute sample of serum showing this binding reaction is reported, using the term titer. The titer indicates the most dilute serum sample that reacts with the tissue mitochondria. A higher titer means there is a greater amount of AMA in the serum.
The antigen recognized by AMA in patients with PBC is now known to be PDC-E2 and is also often referred to as the M2 antigen. So, newly developed tests for antibodies that bind to PDC-E2 are more specific and are now available to confirm the diagnosis of PBC.
What is the value of the AMA blood test?
AMA are detectable in the serum in 95 to 98% of patients with PBC. So, AMA are tremendously important as a diagnostic marker in patients with PBC. The AMA titers in PBC are almost universally greater than or equal to 1 to 40. This means that a serum sample diluted with 40 times its original volume still contains enough antimitochondrial antibodies to be detected in the binding reaction. A positive AMA with a titer of at least 1:40 in an adult with an elevated alkaline phosphatase in the blood is highly specific for a diagnosis of PBC.
Medically reviewed by Venkatachala Mohan, MD; Board Certified Internal Medicine with subspecialty in Gastroenterology
"Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and natural history of primary biliary cirrhosis"
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