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Anzemet Injection

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Anzemet Injection

Warnings
Precautions

WARNINGS

ANZEMET can cause ECG interval changes (PR, QTc, JT prolongation and QRS widening). These changes are related in magnitude and frequency to blood levels of the active metabolite. These changes are self-limiting with declining blood levels. Some patients have interval prolongations for 24 hours or longer. Interval prolongation could lead to cardiovascular consequences, including heart block or cardiac arrhythmias. These have rarely been reported.

A cardiac conduction abnormality observed on an intra-operative cardiac rhythm monitor (interpreted as complete heart block) was reported in a 61-year-old woman who received 200 mg ANZEMET for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. This patient was also taking verapamil. A similar event also interpreted as complete heart block was reported in one patient receiving placebo. A 66-year-old man with Stage IV non-Hodgkins lymphoma died suddenly 6 hours after receiving 1.8 mg/kg (119 mg) intravenous ANZEMET Injection (dolasetron mesylate injection) . This patient had other potential risk factors including substantial exposure to doxorubicin and concomitant cyclophosphamide.

Pediatric Use

Dolasetron should be administered with caution in pediatric patients who have or may develop prolongation of cardiac conduction intervals, particularly QTc. Rare cases of sustained supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac arrest leading to death, and myocardial infarction have been reported in children and adolescents (See PRECAUTIONS, General, and ADVERSE REACTIONS - Postmarketing Experience).

PRECAUTIONS

General

Dolasetron should be administered with caution in patients who have or may develop prolongation of cardiac conduction intervals, particularly QTc. These include patients with hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, patients taking diuretics with potential for inducing electrolyte abnormalities, patients with congenital QT syndrome, patients taking anti-arrhythmic drugs or other drugs which lead to QT prolongation, and cumulative high dose anthracycline therapy.

Cross hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in patients who received other selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. These reactions have not been seen with dolasetron mesylate.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

In a 24-month carcinogenicity study, there was a statistically significant (P< 0.001) increase in the incidence of combined hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in male mice treated with 150 mg/kg/day and above. In this study, mice (CD-1) were treated orally with dolasetron mesylate 75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day (225, 450 or 900 mg/m2/day). For a 50 kg person of average height (1.46 m2 body surface area), these doses represent 3.4, 6.8 and 13.5 times the recommended clinical dose (66.6 mg/m2, intravenous) on a body surface area basis. No increase in liver tumors was observed at a dose of 75 mg/kg/day in male mice and at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day in female mice.

In a 24-month rat (Sprague-Dawley) carcinogenicity study, oral dolasetron mesylate was not tumorigenic at doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (900 mg/m2/day, 13.5 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) in male rats and 300 mg/kg/day (1800 mg/m2/day, 27 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) in female rats.

Dolasetron mesylate was not genotoxic in the Ames test, the rat lymphocyte chromosomal aberration test, the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell (HGPRT) forward mutation test, the rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) test or the mouse micronucleus test.

Dolasetron mesylate was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg/day (600 mg/m2/day, 9 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) in female rats and up to 400 mg/kg/day (2400 mg/m2/day, 36 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) in male rats.

Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category B.

Teratology studies have not revealed evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to dolasetron mesylate. These studies have been performed in pregnant rats at intravenous doses up to 60 mg/kg/day (5.4 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) and pregnant rabbits at intravenous doses up to 20 mg/kg/day (3.2 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area). There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether dolasetron mesylate is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when ANZEMET Injection (dolasetron mesylate injection) is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Dolasetron should be administered with caution in pediatric patients who have or may develop prolongation of cardiac conduction intervals, particularly QTc. Rare cases of sustained supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac arrest leading to death, and myocardial infarction have been reported in children and adolescents (See PRECAUTIONS, General, and ADVERSE REACTIONS -Postmarketing Experience).

Four open-label, noncomparative pharmacokinetic studies have been performed in a total of 108 pediatric patients receiving emetogenic chemotherapy or undergoing surgery with general anesthesia. These patients received ANZEMET Injection (dolasetron mesylate injection) either intravenously or orally in juice. Pediatric patients from 2 to 17 years of age participated in these trials, which included intravenous ANZEMET Injection (dolasetron mesylate injection) doses of 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, or 2.4 mg/kg, and oral doses of 0.6, 1.2, or 1.8 mg/kg. There is no experience in pediatric patients under 2 years of age. Overall, ANZEMET Injection (dolasetron mesylate injection) was well tolerated in these pediatric patients. Efficacy information collected in pediatric patients receiving cancer chemotherapy are consistent with those obtained in adults. No efficacy information was collected in the pediatric postoperative nausea and vomiting studies.

Geriatric Use

Prevention of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)

In controlled clinical trials in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, 723 (32%) of 2264 patients were 65 years of age or older. Of the 723 geriatric patients in the trial, 563 received intravenous ANZEMET Injection (dolasetron mesylate injection) . No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between geriatric and younger patients, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between geriatric and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Prevention and treatment of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV)

Controlled clinical studies in the prevention and treatment of post-operative nausea and vomiting did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years or older — only 57 (2%) geriatric patients (43 received intravenous ANZEMET Injection (dolasetron mesylate injection) ) out of 3289 total patients participated in the controlled PONV trials — to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experiences have not identified differences in responses between geriatric and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

The pharmacokinetics, including clearance of intravenous ANZEMET Injection (dolasetron mesylate injection) , in elderly and younger patients are similar (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics in Humans). Dosage adjustment is not needed in patients over the age of 65.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/27/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Warnings
Precautions
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