"By Roxanne Nelson
Another study showing an increased risk for cancer with drinking alcohol, even with just one or two drinks a day, has prompted renewed warnings on the health risks associated with alcohol consumption.
QT Interval Prolongation
ANZEMET prolongs the QT interval in a dose dependent fashion. Torsade de Pointes has been reported during post-marketing experience. Avoid ANZEMET in patients with congenital long QT syndrome, hypomagnesemia, or hypokalemia. Hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia must be corrected prior to ANZEMET administration. Monitor these electrolytes after administration as clinically indicated. Use ECG monitoring in patients with congestive heart failure, bradycardia, renal impairment, and elderly patients (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
PR and QRS Interval Prolongation
ANZEMET has been shown to cause dose dependent prolongation of the PR and QRS interval and reports of second or third degree atrioventricular block, cardiac arrest and serious ventricular arrhythmias including fatalities in both adult and pediatric patients. At particular risk are patients with underlying structural heart disease and preexisting conduction system abnormalities, elderly, patients with sick sinus syndrome, patients with atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular response, patients with myocardial ischemia or patients receiving drugs known to prolong the PR interval (such as verapamil) and QRS interval (e.g., flecainide or quinidine). ANZEMET should be used with caution and with ECG monitoring in these patients. ANZEMET should be avoided in patients with complete heart block or at risk for complete heart block, unless they have an implanted pacemaker (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
Dolasetron should be administered with caution in patients who have or may develop prolongation of cardiac conduction intervals, particularly QTc. These include patients with hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, patients taking diuretics with potential for inducing electrolyte abnormalities, patients with congenital QT syndrome, patients taking antiarrhythmic drugs or other drugs which lead to QT prolongation, and cumulative high dose anthracycline therapy.
Cross hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in patients who received other selective 5HT3 receptor antagonists. These reactions have not been seen with dolasetron mesylate.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
In a 24-month carcinogenicity study, there was a statistically significant (P < 0.001) increase in the incidence of combined hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in male mice treated with 150 mg/kg/day and above. In this study, mice (CD-1) were treated orally with dolasetron mesylate 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg/day (225, 450 or 900 mg/m²/day). For a 50 kg person of average height (1.46 m² body surface area), these doses represent 3, 6, and 12 times the recommended clinical dose (74 mg/m²) on a body surface area basis. No increase in liver tumors was observed at a dose of 75 mg/kg/day in male mice and at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day in female mice.
In a 24-month rat (Sprague-Dawley) carcinogenicity study, oral dolasetron mesylate was not tumorigenic at doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (900 mg/m²/day, 12 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) in male rats and 300 mg/kg/day (1800 mg/m²/day, 24 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) in female rats.
Dolasetron mesylate was not genotoxic in the Ames test, the rat lymphocyte chromosomal aberration test, the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell (HGPRT) forward mutation test, the rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) test or the mouse micronucleus test.
Dolasetron mesylate was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg/day (600 mg/m²/day, 8 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) in female rats and up to 400 mg/kg/day (2400 mg/m²/day, 32 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) in male rats.
Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category B
Teratology studies have not revealed evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to dolasetron mesylate. These studies have been performed in pregnant rats at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg/day (8 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) and pregnant rabbits at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg/day (16 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area). There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
It is not known whether dolasetron mesylate is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when ANZEMET Tablets are administered to a nursing woman.
(See PRECAUTIONS, General)
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients (2 years and older) is based on pharmacokinetic studies and efficacy data in adults. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients under 2 years of age have not been established.
ANZEMET Tablets are expected to be as safe and effective as when ANZEMET Injection is given orally to pediatric patients. ANZEMET Tablets are recommended for children old enough to swallow tablets (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics in Humans).
- Elderly patients are at particular risk for prolongation of the PR, QRS, and QT interval; therefore, caution should be exercised and ECG monitoring should be performed when using ANZEMET in this population (see WARNINGS).
- In controlled clinical trials in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, 301 (29%) of 1026 patients were 65 years of age or older. Of the 301 geriatric patients in the trial, 282 received oral ANZEMET Tablets. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between geriatric and younger patients, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between geriatric and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
The pharmacokinetics, including clearance of oral ANZEMET Tablets, in elderly and younger patients are similar (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics in Humans). Dosage adjustment is not needed in patients over the age of 65.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/27/2013
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