"Jan. 8, 2013 -- Drinking sweetened beverages -- either sugar-sweetened or diet -- may be linked with a slightly higher depression risk, while drinking coffee may slightly lower the risk.
That is the finding from a new study to be pres"...
Mechanism Of Action
The mechanism of action of bupropion is unknown, as is the case with other antidepressants. However, it is presumed that this action is mediated by noradrenergic and/or dopaminergic mechanisms. Bupropion is a relatively weak inhibitor of the neuronal uptake of norepinephrine and dopamine, and does not inhibit monoamine oxidase or the re-uptake of serotonin.
Bupropion is a racemic mixture. The pharmacologic activity and pharmacokinetics of the individual enantiomers have not been studied.
Following chronic dosing of APLENZIN 348 mg once-daily tablets, the mean peak steady-state plasma concentration and area under the curve of bupropion were 134.3 (±38.2) ng/mL and 1409 (±346) ng•hr/mL, respectively. Steady-state plasma concentrations of bupropion were reached within 8 days. The elimination half-life (±SD) of bupropion after a single dose is 21.3 (±6.7) hours.
In a study comparing 10-day dosing with APLENZIN 348 mg once-daily and bupropion HCl extended-release 300 mg once-daily, (following a 3-day titration with bupropion HCl extendedrelease 150 mg once-daily), APLENZIN peak plasma concentration and area under the curve for bupropion and the 3 metabolites (hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion, and erythrohydrobupropion) were equivalent to bupropion HCl extended-release 300 mg, with the average being 8 to14% lower.
In a single dose study, two APLENZIN tablets 174 mg once-daily and one APLENZIN tablet 348 mg once-daily were evaluated. Equivalence was demonstrated for peak plasma concentration and area under the curve for bupropion and the 3 metabolites.
A multiple dose study compared 14-day dosing with APLENZIN tablets 522 mg once-daily to dosing with three APLENZIN tablets 174 mg once-daily, following a 3-day titration with one APLENZIN tablet 174 mg once-daily, and a succeeding 5-day titration with two APLENZIN tablets 174 mg once-daily. Equivalence was demonstrated for peak plasma concentration and area under the curve for bupropion and the 3 metabolites.
These findings demonstrate that APLENZIN tablets 174 mg, 348 mg, and 522 mg are dose proportional.
Following single oral administration of APLENZIN tablets to healthy volunteers, the median time to peak plasma concentrations for bupropion was approximately 5 hours. The presence of food did not affect the peak concentration and time to peak plasma concentration of bupropion; the area under the curve was increased by 19%.
In vitro tests demonstrated that bupropion is 84% bound to human plasma proteins at concentrations up to 200 mcg/mL. The extent of protein binding of the hydroxybupropion metabolite is similar to that for bupropion, whereas the extent of protein binding of the threohydrobupropion metabolite is about half that of bupropion.
Bupropion is extensively metabolized in humans. Three metabolites are active: hydroxybupropion, which is formed via hydroxylation of the tert-butyl group of bupropion, and the amino-alcohol isomers threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion, which are formed via reduction of the carbonyl group. In vitro findings suggest that CYP2B6 is the principal isoenzyme involved in the formation of hydroxybupropion, while cytochrome P450 enzymes are not involved in the formation of threohydrobupropion. Oxidation of the bupropion side chain results in the formation of a glycine conjugate of meta-chlorobenzoic acid, which is then excreted as the major urinary metabolite. The potency and toxicity of the metabolites relative to bupropion have not been fully characterized. However, it has been demonstrated in an antidepressant screening test in mice that hydroxybupropion is one half as potent as bupropion, while threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion are 5-fold less potent than bupropion. This may be of clinical importance, because the plasma concentrations of the metabolites are as high or higher than those of bupropion.
Following chronic administration in healthy volunteers, peak plasma concentration of hydroxybupropion occurred approximately 6 hours after administration of APLENZIN. The peak plasma concentrations of hydroxybupropion were approximately 9 times the peak level of the parent drug at steady state. The elimination half-life of hydroxybupropion is approximately 24.3 (±4.9) hours, and its AUC at steady state is about 15.6 times that of bupropion. The times to peak concentrations for the erythrohydrobupropion and threohydrobupropion metabolites are similar to that of hydroxybupropion. However, the elimination half-lives of erythrohydrobupropion and threohydrobupropion are longer, approximately 31.1(±7.8) and 50.8 (±8.5) hours, respectively, and steady-state AUCs were 1.5 and 6.8 times that of bupropion, respectively.
Bupropion and its metabolites exhibit linear kinetics following chronic administration of 300 mg to 450 mg/day of bupropion hydrochloride (equivalent to 348 mg and 522 mg of APLENZIN, respectively).
Following oral administration of 200 mg of 14C-bupropion in humans, 87% and 10% of the radioactive dose were recovered in the urine and feces, respectively. Only 0.5% of the oral dose was excreted as unchanged bupropion.
Factors or conditions altering metabolic capacity (e.g., liver disease, congestive heart failure [CHF], age, concomitant medications, etc.) or elimination may be expected to influence the degree and extent of accumulation of the active metabolites of bupropion. The elimination of the major metabolites of bupropion may be affected by reduced renal or hepatic function, because they are moderately polar compounds and are likely to undergo further metabolism or conjugation in the liver prior to urinary excretion.
There is limited information on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion in patients with renal impairment. An inter-trial comparison between normal subjects and subjects with end-stage renal failure demonstrated that the parent drug Cmax and AUC values were comparable in the 2 groups, whereas the hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion metabolites had a 2.3- and 2.8-fold increase, respectively, in AUC for subjects with end-stage renal failure. A second study, comparing normal subjects and subjects with moderate-to-severe renal impairment (GFR 30.9 ± 10.8 mL/min) showed that after a single 150 mg dose of sustained-release bupropion, exposure to bupropion was approximately 2-fold higher in subjects with impaired renal function, while levels of the hydroxybupropion and threo/erythrohydrobupropion (combined) metabolites were similar in the 2 groups. Bupropion is extensively metabolized in the liver to active metabolites, which are further metabolized and subsequently excreted by the kidneys. The elimination of the major metabolites of bupropion may be reduced by impaired renal function. APLENZIN should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment and a reduced frequency and/or dose should be considered [see Use In Specific Populations].
The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion was characterized in 2 single-dose trials, one in subjects with alcoholic liver disease and one in subjects with mild to severe cirrhosis. The first trial demonstrated that the half-life of hydroxybupropion was significantly longer in 8 subjects with alcoholic liver disease than in 8 healthy volunteers (32±14 hours versus 21±5 hours, respectively). Although not statistically significant, the AUCs for bupropion and hydroxybupropion were more variable and tended to be greater (by 53% to 57%) in patients with alcoholic liver disease. The differences in half-life for bupropion and the other metabolites in the 2 groups were minimal.
The second trial demonstrated no statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its active metabolites in 9 subjects with mild to moderate hepatic cirrhosis compared to 8 healthy volunteers. However, more variability was observed in some of the pharmacokinetic parameters for bupropion (AUC, Cmax, and Tmax) and its active metabolites (t½) in subjects with mild to moderate hepatic cirrhosis. In addition, in patients with severe hepatic cirrhosis, the bupropion Cmax and AUC were substantially increased (mean difference: by approximately 70% and 3-fold, respectively) and more variable when compared to values in healthy volunteers; the mean bupropion half-life was also longer (29 hours in subjects with severe hepatic cirrhosis vs. 19 hours in healthy subjects). For the metabolite hydroxybupropion, the mean Cmax was approximately 69% lower. For the combined amino-alcohol isomers threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion, the mean Cmax was approximately 31% lower. The mean AUC increased by about 1½-fold for hydroxybupropion and about 2½-fold for threo/erythrohydrobupropion. The median Tmax was observed 19 hours later for hydroxybupropion and 31 hours later for threo/erythrohydrobupropion. The mean half-lives for hydroxybupropion and threo/erythrohydrobupropion were increased 5- and 2-fold, respectively, in patients with severe hepatic cirrhosis compared to healthy volunteers [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Use in Specific Populations].
Left Ventricular Dysfunction
During a chronic dosing study with bupropion in 14 depressed patients with left ventricular dysfunction (history of CHF or an enlarged heart on x-ray), there was no apparent effect on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion or its metabolites, compared to healthy volunteers.
The effects of age on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its metabolites have not been fully characterized, but an exploration of steady-state bupropion concentrations from several depression efficacy studies involving patients dosed in a range of 300 to 750 mg/day, on a 3 times daily schedule, revealed no relationship between age (18 to 83 years) and plasma concentration of bupropion. A single-dose pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the disposition of bupropion and its metabolites in elderly subjects was similar to that in younger subjects. These data suggest that there is no prominent effect of age on bupropion concentration; however, another single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study suggested that the elderly are at increased risk for accumulation of bupropion and its metabolites [see Use In Specific Populations].
A single-dose study involving 12 healthy male and 12 healthy female volunteers revealed no sexrelated differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters of bupropion. In addition, pooled analysis of bupropion pharmacokinetic data from 90 healthy male and 90 healthy female volunteers revealed no sex-related differences in the peak plasma concentrations of bupropion. The mean systemic exposure (AUC) was approximately 13% higher in male volunteers compared to female volunteers.
The effects of cigarette smoking on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion hydrochloride were studied in 34 healthy male and female volunteers; 17 were chronic cigarette smokers and 17 were nonsmokers. Following oral administration of a single 150-mg dose of bupropion, there was no statistically significant difference in Cmax, half-life, Tmax, AUC, or clearance of bupropion or its active metabolites between smokers and nonsmokers.
Potential for Other Drugs to Affect APLENZIN
In vitro studies indicate that bupropion is primarily metabolized to hydroxybupropion by CYP2B6. Therefore, the potential exists for drug interactions between APLENZIN and drugs that are inhibitors or inducers of CYP2B6. In addition, in vitro studies suggest that paroxetine, sertraline, norfluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and nelfinavir, inhibit the hydroxylation of bupropion.
Inhibitors of CYP2B6
Ticlopidine, Clopidogrel : In a study in healthy male volunteers, clopidogrel 75 mg once daily or ticlopidine 250 mg twice daily increased exposures (Cmax and AUC) of bupropion by 40% and 60% for clopidogrel, by 38% and 85% for ticlopidine, respectively. The exposures of hydroxybupropion were decreased.
Prasugrel: In healthy subjects, prasugrel increased bupropion Cmax and AUC values by 14% and 18%, respectively, and decreased Cmax and AUC values of hydroxybupropion by 32% and 24%, respectively.
Cimetidine: Following oral administration of bupropion 300 mg with and without cimetidine 800 mg in 24 healthy young male volunteers, the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and hydroxybupropion were unaffected. However, there were 16% and 32% increases in the AUC and Cmax, respectively, of the combined moieties of threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion
Citalopram : Citalopram did not affect the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its three metabolites.
Inducers of CYP2B6
Ritonavir and Lopinavir: In a healthy volunteer study, ritonavir 100 mg twice daily reduced the AUC and Cmax of bupropion by 22% and 21%, respectively. The exposure of the hydroxybupropion metabolite was decreased by 23%, the threohydrobupropion decreased by 38%, and the erythrohydrobupropion decreased by 48%. In a second healthy volunteer study, ritonavir 600 mg twice daily decreased the AUC and Cmax of bupropion by 66% and 62%, respectively. The exposure of the hydroxybupropion metabolite was decreased by 78%, the threohydrobupropion decreased by 50%, and the erythrohydrobupropion decreased by 68%. In another healthy volunteer study, lopinavir 400 mg/ritonavir 100 mg twice daily decreased bupropion AUC and Cmax by 57%. The AUC and Cmax of hydroxybupropion metabolite were decreased by 50% and 31%, respectively.
Efavirenz: In a study of healthy volunteers, efavirenz 600 mg once daily for 2 weeks reduced the AUC and Cmax of bupropion by approximately 55% and 34%, respectively. The AUC of hydroxybupropion was unchanged, whereas Cmax of hydroxybupropion was increased by 50%.
Carbamazepine, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin: While not systematically studied, these drugs may induce the metabolism of bupropion.
Potential for APLENZIN to Affect Other Drugs
Animal data indicated that bupropion may be an inducer of drug-metabolizing enzymes in humans. In a study of 8 healthy male volunteers, following a 14-day administration of bupropion 100 mg three times per day, there was no evidence of induction of its own metabolism. Nevertheless, there may be the potential for clinically important alterations of blood levels of coadministered drugs.
Drugs Metabolized by CYP2D6
In vitro, bupropion and hydroxybupropion are CYP2D6 inhibitors. In a clinical study of 15 male subjects (ages 19 to 35 years) who were extensive metabolizers of CYP2D6, bupropion given as 150 mg twice daily followed by a single dose of 50 mg desipramine increased the Cmax, AUC, and T½ of desipramine by an average of approximately 2-, 5-, and 2-fold, respectively. The effect was present for at least 7 days after the last dose of bupropion. Concomitant use of bupropion with other drugs metabolized by CYP2D6 has not been formally studied.
Citalopram : Although citalopram is not primarily metabolized by CYP2D6, in one study bupropion increased the Cmax and AUC of citalopram by 30% and 40%, respectively.
Lamotrigine: Multiple oral doses of bupropion had no statistically significant effects on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine in 12 healthy volunteers.
Major Depressive Disorder
The efficacy of bupropion in the treatment of major depressive disorder was established with the immediate-release formulation of bupropion hydrochloride in two 4-week, placebo-controlled trials in adult inpatients with MDD and in one 6-week, placebo-controlled trial in adult outpatients with MDD. In the first study, the bupropion dose range was 300 mg to 600 mg per day administered in 3 divided doses; 78% of patients were treated with doses of 300 mg to 450 per day. The trial demonstrated the efficacy of bupropion as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) total score, the HDRS depressed mood item (item 1), and the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity Scale (CGI-S). The second study included 2 fixed doses of bupropion (300 mg and 450 mg per day) and placebo. This trial demonstrated the efficacy of bupropion for only the 450-mg dose. The efficacy results were significant for the HDRS total score and the CGI-S severity score, but not for HDRS item 1. In the third study, outpatients were treated with bupropion 300 mg per day. This study demonstrated the efficacy of bupropion as measured by the HDRS total score, the HDRS item 1, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the CGI-S score, and the CGI-Improvement Scale (CGI-I) score.
A longer-term, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal trial demonstrated the efficacy of bupropion HCl sustained-release in the maintenance treatment of MDD. The trial included adult outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for MDD, recurrent type, who had responded during an 8-week open-label trial of bupropion 300 mg per day. Responders were randomized to continuation of bupropion 300 mg per day or placebo, for up to 44 weeks of observation for relapse. Response during the open-label phase was defined as a CGI-Improvement Scale score of 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved) for each of the final 3 weeks. Relapse during the double-blind phase was defined as the investigator's judgment that drug treatment was needed for worsening depressive symptoms. Patients in the bupropion group experienced significantly lower relapse rates over the subsequent 44 weeks compared to those in the placebo group.
Although there are no independent trials demonstrating the efficacy of APLENZIN or bupropion HCl extended-release in the acute treatment of MDD, studies have demonstrated similar bioavailability between the immediate-, sustained-, and extended-release formulations of bupropion HCl under steady-state conditions (i.e., the exposures [Cmax and AUC] for bupropion and its metabolites are similar among the 3 formulations). Furthermore, clinical studies have demonstrated that APLENZIN is bioequivalent bupropion HCl extended-release.
Seasonal Affective Disorder
The efficacy of bupropion hydrochloride extended- release in the prevention of seasonal major depressive episodes associated with SAD was established in 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adult outpatients with a history MDD with an autumn-winter seasonal pattern (as defined by DSM-IV criteria). Bupropion treatment was initiated prior to the onset of symptoms in the autumn (September to November). Treatment was discontinued following a 2 week taper that began during the first week of spring (fourth week of March), resulting in a treatment duration of approximately 4 to 6 months for the majority of patients. Patients were randomized to treatment with bupropion HCl extended-release or placebo. The initial bupropion dose was 150 mg once daily for 1 week, followed by up-titration to 300 mg once daily. Patients who were deemed by the investigator to be unlikely or unable to tolerate 300 mg once daily were allowed to remain on, or had their dose reduced to, 150 mg once daily. The mean bupropion doses in the 3 trials ranged from 257 mg to 280 mg per day. Approximately 59% of patients continued in the study for 3 to 6 months; 26% continued for < 3 months, 15% continued for > 6 months.
To enter the trials, patients must have had a low level of depressive symptoms, as demonstrated by a score of < 7 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD-17) and a HAMD-24 score of < 14. The primary efficacy measure was the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Seasonal Affective Disorders (SIGH-SAD), which is identical to the HAM-D-24. The SIGH-SAD consists of the HAMD-17 plus 7 items specifically assessing core symptoms of seasonal affective disorder: social withdrawal, weight gain, increased appetite, increased eating, carbohydrate craving, hypersomnia, and fatigability. The primary efficacy endpoint was the onset of a seasonal major depressive episode. The criteria for defining an episode included: 1) the investigator's judgment that a major depressive episode had occurred or that the patient required intervention for depressive symptoms, or 2) a SIGH-SAD score of > 20 on 2 consecutive weeks. The primary analysis was a comparison of depression-free rates between the bupropion and placebo groups.
In these 3 trials, the percentage of patients who were depression-free (did not have an episode of MDD) at the end of treatment was significantly higher in the bupropion group than in the placebo group: 81.4% vs. 69.7%, 87.2% vs. 78.7%, and 84.0% vs. 69.0% for Trials 1, 2 and 3, respectively. For the 3 trials combined, the depression-free rate was 84.3% versus 72.0%, in the bupropion and placebo group, respectively.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/27/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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