"The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved carbidopa/levodopa enteral suspension (Duopa, AbbVie) for the treatment of motor fluctuations in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease, according to a company news release.
APOKYN® (apomorphine hydrochloride injection) is indicated for the acute, intermittent treatment of hypomobility, “off” episodes (“end-of-dose wearing off” and unpredictable “on/off” episodes) in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. APOKYN has been studied as an adjunct to other medications [see Clinical Studies].
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Important Administration Instructions
APOKYN is indicated for subcutaneous administration only [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] and only by a multiple-dose APOKYN Pen with supplied cartridges. The initial dose and dose titrations should be performed by a healthcare provider. Blood pressure and pulse should be measured in the supine and standing position before and after dosing.
A caregiver or patient may administer APOKYN if a healthcare provider determines that it is appropriate. Instruct patients to follow the directions provided in the Patients Instructions For Use. Because the APOKYN Pen has markings in milliliters (mL), the prescribed dose of APOKYN should be expressed in mL to avoid confusion.
Visually inspect the APOKYN drug product through the viewing window for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. The solution should not be used if discolored (it should be colorless), or cloudy, or if foreign particles are present. Rotate the injection site and use proper aseptic technique [see HOW SUPPLIED/Storage and Handling and PATIENT INFORMATION].
Premedication And Concomitant Medication
APOKYN should be initiated with the use of a concomitant antiemetic [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Oral trimethobenzamide (300 mg three times a day) should be started 3 days prior to the initial dose of APOKYN and continued at least during the first two months of therapy.
Based on reports of profound hypotension and loss of consciousness when apomorphine was administered with ondansetron, the concomitant use of apomorphine with drugs of the 5HT3 antagonist class including antiemetics (for example, ondansetron, granisetron, dolasetron, palonosetron) and alosetron are contraindicated [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
The recommended starting dose of APOKYN is 0.2 mL (2 mg). Titrate on the basis of effectiveness and tolerance, up to a maximum recommended dose of 0.6 mL (6 mg) [see Clinical Studies].
There is no evidence from controlled trials that doses greater than 0.6 mL (6 mg) gave an increased effect and therefore, individual doses above 0.6 mL (6 mg) are not recommended. The average frequency of dosing in the development program was 3 times per day. There is limited experience with single doses greater than 0.6 mL (6 mg), dosing more than 5 times per day and with total daily doses greater than 2 mL (20 mg).
Begin dosing when patients are in an “off” state. The initial dose should be a 0.2 mL (2 mg) test dose in a setting where medical personnel can closely monitor blood pressure and pulse. Both supine and standing blood pressure and pulse should be checked pre-dose and at 20 minutes, 40 minutes, and 60 minutes post-dose (and after 60 minutes, if there is significant hypotension at 60 minutes). Patients who develop clinically significant orthostatic hypotension in response to this test dose of APOKYN should not be considered candidates for treatment with APOKYN.
If the patient tolerates the 0.2 mL (2 mg) dose, and responds adequately, the starting dose should be 0.2 mL (2 mg), used on an as needed basis to treat recurring “off” episodes. If needed, the dose can be increased in 0.1 mL (1 mg) increments every few days on an outpatient basis.
The general principle guiding subsequent dosing (described in detail below) is to determine that the patient needs and can tolerate a higher test dose, 0.3 mL or 0.4 mL (3 mg or 4 mg, respectively) under close medical supervision. A trial of outpatient dosing may follow (periodically assessing both efficacy and tolerability), using a dose 0.1 mL (1 mg) lower than the tolerated test dose.
If the patient tolerates the 0.2 mL (2 mg) test dose but does not respond adequately, a dose of 0.4 mL (4 mg) may be administered under medical supervision, at least 2-hours after the initial test dose, at the next observed “off” period. If the patient tolerates and responds to a test dose of 0.4 mL (4 mg), the initial maintenance dose should be 0.3 mL (3 mg) used on an as needed basis to treat recurring “off” episodes as an outpatient. If needed, the dose can be increased in 0.1 mL (1 mg) increments every few days on an outpatient basis.
If the patient does not tolerate a test dose of 0.4 mL (4 mg), a test dose of 0.3 mL (3 mg) may be administered during a separate “off” period under medical supervision, at least 2-hours after the previous dose. If the patient tolerates the 0.3 mL (3 mg) test dose, the initial maintenance dose should be 0.2 mL (2 mg) used on an as needed basis to treat existing “off” episodes. If needed, and the 0.2 mL (2 mg) dose is tolerated, the dose can be increased to 0.3 mL (3 mg) after a few days. In such a patient, the dose should ordinarily not be increased to 0.4 mL (4 mg) on an out-patient basis.
Dosing In Patients With Renal Impairment
Dosing In Patients With Hepatic Impairment
Re-treatment And Interruption In Therapy
If a single dose of APOKYN is ineffective for a particular “off” period, a second dose should not be given for that “off” episode. The efficacy of the safety of administering a second dose for a single “off” episode has not been studied systematically. Do not administer a repeat dose of APOKYN sooner than 2 hours after the last dose.
Patients who have an interruption in therapy of more than a week should be restarted on a 0.2 mL (2 mg) dose and gradually titrated to effect and tolerability.
Dosage Forms And Strengths
APOKYN 30 mg/3 mL (10 mg/mL) containing apomorphine hydrochloride (as apomorphine hydrochloride hemihydrate), USP is supplied as a clear, colorless, sterile, solution in a 3 mL (30 mg) cartridge. The 3 mL (30 mg) glass cartridge is used with a manual reusable, multiple-dose pen injector (APOKYN Pen). A single cartridge, pen and needle can deliver doses up to 1 mL (10 mg) in 0.02 mL (0.2 mg) increments. The multiple-dose pen injector is provided in a package with six needles.
Storage And Handling
APOKYN is supplied as a 10 mg/mL clear, colorless, sterile, solution in 3 mL (30 mg) glass cartridges.
NDC 27505-004-05 Cartons of five 3 mL cartridges
APOKYN Pen The pen injector is provided in a package with six needles and a carrying case.
Store at 25°C (77°F). Excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]
Distributed by: US WorldMeds, LLC Louisville, KY 40207. Revised: July 2014This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/8/2014
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