"Research funded in part by the NIH's National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases has identified an enzyme that modulates inflammation and joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis. The results, which appeared in the journal, "...
Mechanism Of Action
Leflunomide is an isoxazole immunomodulatory agent that inhibits dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (a mitochondrial enzyme involved in de novo pyrimidine synthesis) and has antiproliferative activity. Several in vivo and in vitro experimental models have demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect.
Following oral administration, leflunomide is metabolized to an active metabolite, teriflunomide, which is responsible for essentially all of leflunomide's in vivo activity. Plasma concentrations of the parent drug, leflunomide, have been occasionally seen at very low concentrations. Studies of the pharmacokinetics of leflunomide have primarily examined the plasma concentrations of the active metabolite, teriflunomide.
Following oral administration, peak teriflunomide concentrations occurred between 6 - 12 hours after dosing. Due to the very long half-life of teriflunomide (18-19 days), a loading dose of 100 mg for 3 days was used in clinical studies to facilitate the rapid attainment of steady-state teriflunomide concentrations. Without a loading dose, it is estimated that attainment of steady-state plasma concentrations would require about two months of dosing. The resulting plasma concentrations following both loading doses and continued clinical dosing indicate that plasma teriflunomide concentrations are dose proportional.
Effect of Food
Co-administration of leflunomide tablets with a high fat meal did not have a significant impact on teriflunomide plasma concentrations.
Teriflunomide is extensively bound to plasma protein ( > 99%) and is mainly distributed in plasma. The volume of distribution is 11 L after a single intravenous (IV) administration.
Teriflunomide, the active metabolite of leflunomide, has a median half-life of 18-19 days in healthy volunteers. The elimination of teriflunomide can be accelerated by administration of cholestyramine or activated charcoal. Without use of an accelerated drug elimination procedure, it may take up to 2 years to reach plasma teriflunomide concentrations of less than 0.02 mg/L, due to individual variation in drug clearance [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. After a single IV administration of the metabolite (teriflunomide), the total body clearance of teriflunomide was 30.5 mL/h.
In vitro inhibition studies in human liver microsomes suggest that cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2C19 and 3A4 are involved in leflunomide metabolism. In vivo, leflunomide is metabolized to one primary (teriflunomide) and many minor metabolites. In vitro, teriflunomide is not metabolized by CYP450 or flavin monoamine oxidase enzymes. The parent compound is rarely detectable in plasma.
Teriflunomide, the active metabolite of leflunomide, is eliminated by direct biliary excretion of unchanged drug as well as renal excretion of metabolites. Over 21 days, 60.1% of the administered dose is excreted via feces (37.5%) and urine (22.6%). After an accelerated elimination procedure with cholestyramine, an additional 23.1% was recovered (mostly in feces).
Gender. Gender has not been shown to cause a consistent change in the in vivo pharmacokinetics of teriflunomide.
Smoking. A population based pharmacokinetic analysis of the clinical trial data indicates that smokers have a 38% increase in clearance over non-smokers; however, no difference in clinical efficacy was seen between smokers and nonsmokers.
Drug Interaction Studies
Drug interaction studies have been conducted with both ARAVA (leflunomide) and with its active metabolite, teriflunomide, where the metabolite was directly administered to the test subjects.
The Potential Effect of Other Drugs on ARAVA
- Potent CYP and transporter inducers:
Following concomitant administration of a single dose of ARAVA to subjects receiving multiple doses of rifampin, teriflunomide peak concentrations were increased (~40%) over those seen when ARAVA was given alone [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]
- An in vivo interaction study with ARAVA and cimetidine (non-specific weak CYP inhibitor) has demonstrated a lack of a significant impact on teriflunomide exposure.
The Potential Effect of ARAVA on Other Drugs
- CYP2C8 Substrates
There was an increase in mean repaglinide Cmax and AUC (1.7-and 2.4-fold, respectively), following repeated doses of teriflunomide and a single dose of 0.25 mg repaglinide, suggesting that teriflunomide is an inhibitor of CYP2C8 in vivo. The magnitude of interaction could be higher at the recommended repaglinide dose [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
- CYP1A2 Substrates
Repeated doses of teriflunomide decreased mean Cmax and AUC of caffeine by 18% and 55%, respectively, suggesting that teriflunomide may be a weak inducer of CYP1A2 in vivo.
- OAT3 Substrates
There was an increase in mean cefaclor Cmax and AUC (1.43-and 1.54-fold, respectively), following repeated doses of teriflunomide, suggesting that teriflunomide is an inhibitor of organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) in vivo [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
- BCRP and OATP1B1/1B3 Substrates
There was an increase in mean rosuvastatin Cmax and AUC (2.65-and 2.51-fold, respectively), following repeated doses of teriflunomide, suggesting that teriflunomide is an inhibitor of BCRP transporter and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1/1B3) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
- Oral Contraceptives
There was an increase in mean ethinylestradiol Cmax and AUC0-24 (1.58-and 1.54-fold, respectively) and levonorgestrel Cmax and AUC0-24 (1.33-and 1.41-fold, respectively) following repeated doses of teriflunomide [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
- Teriflunomide did not affect the pharmacokinetics of bupropion (a CYP2B6 substrate), midazolam (a CYP3A4 substrate), S-warfarin (a CYP2C9 substrate), omeprazole (a CYP2C19 substrate), and metoprolol (a CYP2D6 substrate).
The efficacy of ARAVA in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was demonstrated in three controlled trials showing reduction in signs and symptoms, and inhibition of structural damage. In two placebo controlled trials, efficacy was demonstrated for improvement in physical function. In these trials, efficacy was evaluated by:
Reduction of Signs And Symptoms
Relief of signs and symptoms was assessed using the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 Responder Index, a composite of clinical, laboratory, and functional measures in rheumatoid arthritis. An “ACR20 Responder” is a patient who had ≥ 20% improvement in both tender and swollen joint counts and in 3 of the following 5 criteria: physician global assessment, patient global assessment, functional ability measure [Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ)], visual analog pain scale, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein. An “ACR20 Responder at Endpoint” is a patient who completed the study and was an ACR20 Responder at the completion of the study.
Inhibition of Structural Damage
Inhibition of structural damage compared to control was assessed using the Sharp Score , a composite score of X-ray erosions and joint space narrowing in hands/wrists and forefeet.
Improvement In Physical Function
Improvement in physical function was assessed using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form (SF-36).
In all ARAVA trials, participants of at least 18 years of age and in ARA functional class of I, II or III received an initial loading dosage of 100 mg Leflunomide per day for three days, followed by 20 mg per day thereafter.
Exclusion criteria included patients with a history of hypersensitivity to the study medication; women who were pregnant or breast feeding and men or women of child bearing age and potential who had not received contraceptives for at least 4 weeks before entering the study and to be maintained throughout the study and for at least 6 months after discontinuing treatment; Patients with a history of inflammatory disease, impaired renal function or liver impairment, cardiac failure, congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, impaired coagulation, or a history of recent major traumatic injury; patients taking intra-articular or systemic concomitant medications which could affect the safety and/or efficacy of the study medication.
Trial 1, a 2 year study, randomized 482 patients with active RA of at least 6 months duration to leflunomide 20 mg/day (n=182), methotrexate 7.5 mg/week increasing to 15 mg/week (n=182), or placebo (n=118). All patients received folate 1 mg BID. The primary analysis was at 52 weeks with blinded treatment to 104 weeks.
Overall, 235 of the 508 randomized treated patients (482 in primary data analysis and an additional 26 patients), continued into a second 12 months of double-blind treatment (98 leflunomide, 101 methotrexate, 36 placebo). Leflunomide dose continued at 20 mg/day and the methotrexate dose could be increased to a maximum of 20 mg/week. In total, 190 patients (83 leflunomide, 80 methotrexate, 27 placebo) completed 2 years of double-blind treatment.
Trial 2 randomized 358 patients with active RA to leflunomide 20 mg/day (n=133), sulfasalazine 2.0 g/day (n=133), or placebo (n=92). Treatment duration was 24 weeks. An extension of the study was an optional 6-month blinded continuation of Trial 2 without the placebo arm, resulting in a 12-month comparison of leflunomide and sulfasalazine.
Of the 168 patients who completed 12 months of treatment , 146 patients (87%) entered a 1-year extension study of double blind active treatment; (60 leflunomide, 60 sulfasalazine, 26 placebo/ sulfasalazine). Patients continued on the same daily dosage of leflunomide or sulfasalazine that they had been taking at the completion of Trial 2. A total of 121 patients (53 leflunomide, 47 sulfasalazine, 21 placebo/sulfasalazine) completed the 2 years of double-blind treatment.
Trial 3 randomized 999 patients with active RA to leflunomide 20 mg/day (n=501) or methotrexate at 7.5 mg/week increasing to 15 mg/week (n=498). Folate supplementation was used in 10% of patients. Treatment duration was 52 weeks.
Of the 736 patients who completed 52 weeks of treatment in study Trial 3, 612 (83%) entered the double-blind, 1-year extension study (292 leflunomide, 320 methotrexate). Patients continued on the same daily dosage of leflunomide or methotrexate that they had been taking at the completion of Trial 3. There were 533 patients (256 leflunomide, 277 methotrexate) who completed 2 years of double-blind treatment.
Clinical Trial Results
The ACR20 Responder at Endpoint rates are shown in Figure 1. ARAVA was statistically significantly superior to placebo in reducing the signs and symptoms of RA by the primary efficacy analysis, ACR20 Responder at Endpoint, in study Trial 1 (at the primary 12 months endpoint) and Trial 2 (at 6 month endpoint). ACR20 Responder at Endpoint rates with ARAVA treatment were consistent across the 6 and 12 month studies (41 - 49%). No consistent differences were demonstrated between leflunomide and methotrexate or between leflunomide and sulfasalazine. ARAVA treatment effect was evident by 1 month, stabilized by 3 - 6 months, and continued throughout the course of treatment as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Percentage of ACR20 Responders at Endpoint
in Patients with Active RA in Trials 1, 2, and 3
Figure 2: ACR20 Responders
over Time in Patients with Active RA in Trial 1*
ACR50 and ACR70 Responders are defined in an analogous manner to the ACR 20 Responder, but use improvements of 50% or 70%, respectively (Table 3). Mean change for the individual components of the ACR Responder Index are shown in Table 4.
Table 3: Summary of ACR
Response Rates in Patients with Active RA in Trials 1,2, and 3*
|Study and Treatment Group||ACR20||ACR50||ACR70|
|Trial 1 (12 months)|
|Placebo (n=118) †||26||8||4|
|Trial 2 (6 months)|
|Non-Placebo Active-Controlled Studies|
|Trial 3 (12 months)|
|* Intent to treat (ITT) analysis using last observation
carried forward (LOCF) technique for patients who discontinued early.
† N is the number of ITT patients for whom adequate data were available to calculate the indicated rates.
‡ p < 0.001 ARAVA vs placebo
§ p < 0.02 ARAVA vs placebo
Table 4 shows the results of the components of the ACR response criteria for Trial 1, Trial 2 and Trial 3. ARAVA was significantly superior to placebo in all components of the ACR Response criteria in study Trial 1 and Trial 2. In addition, Arava was significantly superior to placebo in improving morning stiffness, a measure of RA disease activity, not included in the ACR
Response criteria. No consistent differences were demonstrated between ARAVA and the active comparators.
Table 4: Mean Change in the Components of the ACR
Responder Index in Patients with Active RA in Trials 1, 2, and 3*
|Components||Placebo-Controlled Studies||Non-placebo Controlled Study|
|Trial 1 (12 months)||Trial 2 Non-US (6 months)||Trial 3 Non-US (12 months)|
|Leflu- nomide||Metho- trexate||Placebo||Leflu- nomide||Sulfa- salazine||Placebo||Leflu- nomide||Metho- trexate|
|Tender joint count 1||-7.7||-6.6||-3.0||-9.7||-8.1||-4.3||-8.3||-9.7|
|Swollen joint count 1||-5.7||-5.4||-2.9||-7.2||-6.2||-3.4||-6.8||-9.0|
|Patient global assessment2||-2.1||-1.5||0.1||-2.8||-2.6||-0.9||-2.3||-3.0|
|Physician global assessment2||-2.8||-2.4||-1.0||-2.7||-2.5||-0.8||-2.3||-3.1|
|Physical function/disability (MHAQ/HAQ)||-0.29||-0.15||0.07||-0.50||-0.29||-0.04||-0.37||-0.44|
|Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate||-6.26||-6.48||2.56||-7.48||-16.56||3.44||-10.12||-22.18|
|Not included in the ACR Responder Index|
|Morning Stiffness (min)||-101.4||-88.7||14.7||-93.0||-42.4||-6.8||-63.7||-86.6|
|* Last Observation Carried Forward; Negative Change
1 Based on 28 joint count
2 Visual Analog Scale -0=Best; 10=Worst
Maintenance of effect
After completing 12 months of treatment, patients continuing on study treatment were evaluated for an additional 12 months of double-blind treatment (total treatment period of 2 years) ,. ACR Responder rates at 12 months were maintained over 2 years in most patients continuing a second year of treatment.
Improvement from baseline in the individual components of the ACR responder criteria was also sustained in most patients during the second year of Arava treatment in all three trials.
The change from baseline to endpoint in progression of structural disease, as measured by the Sharp X-ray score, is displayed in Figure 3. ARAVA was statistically significantly superior to placebo in inhibiting the progression of disease by the Sharp Score. No consistent differences were demonstrated between leflunomide and methotrexate or between leflunomide and sulfasalazine.
Figure 3: Change in Sharp Score in Patients with
Active RA in Trials 1, 2, and 3
Physical Function Response
The Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) assesses a patient's physical function and degree of disability. The mean change from baseline in functional ability as measured by the HAQ Disability Index (HAQ DI) in the 6 and 12 month placebo and active controlled trials is shown in Figure 4. ARAVA was statistically significantly superior to placebo in improving physical function. Superiority to placebo was demonstrated consistently across all eight HAQ DI subscales (dressing, arising, eating, walking, hygiene, reach, grip and activities) in both placebo controlled studies.
The Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36), a generic health-related quality of life questionnaire, further addresses physical function. In Trial 1, at 12 months, ARAVA provided statistically significant improvements compared to placebo in the Physical Component Summary (PCS) Score.
Figure 4: Change in Functional Ability Measure in
Patients with Active RA in Trials 1, 2, and 3*
Maintenance of effect
The improvement in physical function demonstrated at 6 and 12 months was maintained over two years. In those patients continuing therapy for a second year, this improvement in physical function as measured by HAQ and SF-36 (PCS) was maintained.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/15/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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