"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Ofev (nintedanib) for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the lungs become progressively scarred over "...
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- Data from a large placebo-controlled study in asthma patients showed that long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists may increase the risk of asthma-related death. Data are not available to determine whether the rate of death in patients with COPD is increased by long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists.
- A 28-week, placebo-controlled US study comparing the safety of another long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist (salmeterol) with placebo, each added to usual asthma therapy, showed an increase in asthma-related deaths in patients receiving salmeterol (13/13,176 in patients treated with salmeterol vs. 3/13,179 in patients treated with placebo; RR 4.37, 95% CI 1.25, 15.34). The increased risk of asthma-related death is considered a class effect of the long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists, including ARCAPTA NEOHALER. No study adequate to determine whether the rate of asthma-related death is increased in patients treated with ARCAPTA NEOHALER has been conducted. The safety and efficacy of ARCAPTA NEOHALER in patients with asthma have not been established. ARCAPTA NEOHALER is not indicated for the treatment of asthma. [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
- Serious asthma-related events, including death, were reported in clinical studies with ARCAPTA NEOHALER. The sizes of these studies were not adequate to precisely quantify the differences in serious asthma exacerbation rates between treatment groups. [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Deterioration of Disease and Acute Episodes
ARCAPTA NEOHALER should not be initiated in patients with acutely deteriorating COPD, which may be a life-threatening condition. ARCAPTA NEOHALER has not been studied in patients with acutely deteriorating COPD. The use of ARCAPTA NEOHALER in this setting is inappropriate.
ARCAPTA NEOHALER should not be used for the relief of acute symptoms, i.e. as rescue therapy for the treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm. ARCAPTA NEOHALER has not been studied in the relief of acute symptoms and extra doses should not be used for that purpose. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled short-acting beta2-agonist.
When beginning ARCAPTA NEOHALER, patients who have been taking inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists on a regular basis (e.g., four times a day) should be instructed to discontinue the regular use of these drugs and use them only for symptomatic relief of acute respiratory symptoms. When prescribing ARCAPTA NEOHALER, the healthcare provider should also prescribe an inhaled, short-acting beta2- agonist and instruct the patient on how it should be used. Increasing inhaled beta2-agonist use is a signal of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is indicated.
COPD may deteriorate acutely over a period of hours or chronically over several days or longer. If ARCAPTA NEOHALER no longer controls the symptoms of bronchoconstriction, or the patient's inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist becomes less effective or the patient needs more inhalation of short-acting beta2-agonist than usual, these may be markers of deterioration of disease. In this setting, a re-evaluation of the patient and the COPD treatment regimen should be undertaken at once. Increasing the daily dosage of ARCAPTA NEOHALER beyond the recommended dose is not appropriate in this situation.
Excessive Use of ARCAPTA NEOHALER and Use with Other Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists
As with other inhaled beta2-adrenergic drugs, ARCAPTA NEOHALER should not be used more often, at higher doses than recommended, or in conjunction with other medications containing long-acting beta2-agonists, as an overdose may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs.
Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions
Immediate hypersensitivity reactions may occur after administration of ARCAPTA NEOHALER. If signs suggesting allergic reactions (in particular, difficulties in breathing or swallowing, swelling of tongue, lips and face, urticaria, skin rash) occur, ARCAPTA NEOHALER should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted.
As with other inhaled beta2-agonists, ARCAPTA NEOHALER may produce paradoxical bronchospasm that may be life-threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, ARCAPTA NEOHALER should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted.
ARCAPTA NEOHALER, like other beta2-agonists, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients as measured by increases in pulse rate, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, or symptoms. If such effects occur, ARCAPTA NEOHALER may need to be discontinued. In addition, beta-agonists have been reported to produce ECG changes, such as flattening of the T wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression, although the clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Therefore, ARCAPTA NEOHALER, like other sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension.
ARCAPTA NEOHALER, like other sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with convulsive disorders or thyrotoxicosis, and in patients who are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Doses of the related beta2-agonist albuterol, when administered intravenously, have been reported to aggravate pre-existing diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis.
Hypokalemia and Hyperglycemia
Beta2-agonist medications may produce significant hypokalemia in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting, which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. The decrease in serum potassium is usually transient, not requiring supplementation. Inhalation of high doses of beta2-adrenergic agonists may produce increases in plasma glucose.
Clinically notable decreases in serum potassium or changes in blood glucose were infrequent during clinical studies with long-term administration of ARCAPTA NEOHALER with the rates similar to those for placebo controls. ARCAPTA NEOHALER has not been investigated in patients whose diabetes mellitus is not well controlled.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide)
Patients should be informed that LABA, such as ARCAPTA NEOHALER, increase the risk of asthma-related death. ARCAPTA NEOHALER is not indicated for the treatment of asthma.
Instructions for Administering ARCAPTA NEOHALER
It is important for patients to understand how to correctly administer ARCAPTA capsules using the NEOHALER device [see Instructions for Use at the end of the Medication Guide]. Patients should be instructed that ARCAPTA capsules should only be administered via the NEOHALER device and the NEOHALER device should not be used for administering other medications. The contents of ARCAPTA capsules are for oral inhalation only and must not be swallowed.
ARCAPTA capsules should always be stored in sealed blisters. Only one ARCAPTA capsule should be removed immediately before use, or its effectiveness may be reduced. Additional ARCAPTA capsules that are exposed to air (i.e. not intended for immediate use) should be discarded.
Not for Acute Symptoms
ARCAPTA NEOHALER is not meant to relieve acute symptoms or exacerbations of COPD and extra doses should not be used for that purpose. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist such as albuterol. (The healthcare provider should provide the patient with such medication and instruct the patient in how it should be used.)
Patients should be instructed to notify their physician immediately if they experience any of the following:
- Worsening of symptoms
- Decreasing effectiveness of inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists
- Need for more inhalations than usual of inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists
- Significant decrease in lung function as outlined by the physician.
Patients should not stop therapy with ARCAPTA NEOHALER without physician/provider guidance since symptoms may recur after discontinuation.
Do Not Use Additional Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists
Patients who have been taking inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists on a regular basis should be instructed to discontinue the regular use of these products and use them only for the symptomatic relief of acute symptoms.
When patients are prescribed ARCAPTA NEOHALER, other inhaled medications containing long-acting beta2-agonists should not be used. Patients should not use more than the recommended once daily dose of ARCAPTA NEOHALER. Excessive use of sympathomimetics may cause significant cardiovascular effects, and may be fatal.
Risks Associated With Beta-Agonist Therapy
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term studies were conducted in transgenic mice using oral administration and in rats using inhalation administration to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of indacaterol maleate. Indacaterol did not show a statistically significant increase in tumor formation in mice or rats.
Lifetime treatment of rats resulted in increased incidences of benign ovarian leiomyoma and focal hyperplasia of ovarian smooth muscle in females at doses approximately 270-times the dose of 75 mcg once-daily for humans (on a mg/m² basis).
A 26-week oral (gavage) study in CB6F1/TgrasH2 hemizygous mice with indacaterol did not show any evidence of tumorigenicity at doses approximately 39,000-times the dose of 75 mcg once-daily for humans (on a mg/m2 basis).
Increases in leiomyomas of the female rat genital tract have been similarly demonstrated with other beta2-adrenergic agonist drugs. The relevance of these findings to human use is unknown.
Indacaterol was not mutagenic or clastogenic in Ames test, chromosome aberration test in V79 Chinese hamster cells, and bone marrow micronucleus test in rats.
Indacaterol did not impair fertility of rats in reproduction studies.
Use In Specific Populations
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with ARCAPTA NEOHALER in pregnant women. ARCAPTA NEOHALER should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Indacaterol was not teratogenic following subcutaneous administration to rats and rabbits at doses up to 1 mg/kg, approximately 130 and 260 times, respectively, the 75 mcg dose on a mg/m² basis.
Labor and Delivery
There are no adequate and well-controlled human studies that have investigated effects of ARCAPTA NEOHALER on preterm labor or labor at term. Because of the potential for beta-agonist interference with uterine contractility, use of ARCAPTA NEOHALER during labor should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risks.
It is not known that the active component of ARCAPTA NEOHALER, indacaterol, is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because indacaterol has been detected in the milk of lactating rats, caution should be exercised when ARCAPTA NEOHALER is administered to nursing women.
ARCAPTA NEOHALER is not indicated for use in children. The safety and effectiveness of ARCAPTA NEOHALER in pediatric patients have not been established.
Based on available data, no adjustment of ARCAPTA NEOHALER dosage in geriatric patients is warranted. Of the total number of patients who received ARCAPTA NEOHALER at the recommended dose of 75 mcg once daily in the clinical studies from the pooled 3-month database, 239 were < 65 years, 153 were 65–74 years and 57 were ≥ 75 years of age.
No overall differences in effectiveness were observed, and in the 3-month pooled data, the adverse drug reaction profile was similar in the older population compared to the patient population overall. When treated at higher doses (300 mcg and 600 mcg) over the course of a year, the adverse drug reaction profiles for patients > 65 years was similar to that of the general patient population.
Patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment showed no relevant changes in Cmax or AUC, nor did protein binding differ between mild and moderate hepatically impaired subjects and their healthy controls. Studies in subjects with severe hepatic impairment were not performed.
Due to the very low contribution of the urinary pathway to total body elimination, a study in renally impaired subjects was not performed.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/15/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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