Minocycline, a member of the tetracycline class of antibiotics, has a broad spectrum of activity.1 It is bacteriostatic and exerts its antimicrobial activity by inhibiting protein synthesis.1 In vitro susceptibility testing has shown that the organisms Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eikenella corrodens, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, which are associated with periodontal disease, are susceptible to minocycline at concentrations of ≤ 8 µg/mL2; qualitative and quantitative changes in plaque microorganisms have not been demonstrated in patients with periodontitis, using this product,
The emergence of minocycline-resistant bacteria in single-site plaque samples was studied in subjects before and after treatment with ARESTIN® at 2 centers. There was a slight increase in the numbers of minocycline-resistant bacteria at the end of the 9-month study period, however, the number of subjects studied was small and the clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
The emergence of minocycline-resistant bacteria and changes in the presence of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus in the gastrointestinal tract were studied in subjects treated with ARESTIN® in one phase 3 study. No changes in the presence of minocycline-resistant bacteria or C albicans or S aureus were seen at the end of the 56-day study period.
In a pharmacokinetic study, 18 patients (10 men and 8 women) with moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis were treated with a mean dose of 46.2 mg (25 to 112 unit doses) of ARESTIN® . After fasting for at least 10 hours, patients received subgingival application of ARESTIN® (1 mg per treatment site) following scaling and root planing at a minimum of 30 sites on at least 8 teeth, Investigational drug was administered to all eligible sites ≥ 5 mm in probing depth. Mean dose normalized saliva AUC and Cmax were found to be approximately 125 and 1000 times higher than those of serum parameters, respectively.
In 2 well-controlled, multicenter, investigator-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-design studies (3 arms), 748 patients (study 0PI-1Q3A = 368, study 0PI-103B = 380) with generalized moderate to advanced adult periodontitis characterized by a mean probing depth of 5.90 and 5.81 mm, respectively, were enrolled, Subjects received 1 of 3 treatments: (1) scaling and root planing, (2) scaling and root planing + vehicle (bioresorbable polymer, PGLA), and (3) scaling and root planing + ARESTIN® . To qualify for the study, patients were required to have 4 teeth with periodontal pockets of 6 to 9 mm that bled on probing. However, treatment was administered to all sites with mean probing depths of 5 mm or greater. Patients studied were in good general health. Patients with poor glycemic control or active infectious diseases were excluded from the studies. Retreatment occurred at 3 and 6 months after initial treatment, and any new site with pocket depth ≥ 5 mm also received treatment, Patients treated with ARESTIN® were found to have statistically significantly reduced probing pocket depth compared with those treated with SRP alone or SRP + vehicle at 9 months after initial treatment, as shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Probing Pocket Depth at Baseline and Change in
Pocket Depth at 9 Months From 2 Multicenter US Clinical Trials
|SRP + Vehicle
|SRP + ARESTIN®
|SRP + Vehicle
|SRP + ARESTIN®
|PD (mm) at Baseline, Mean ± SE||5.88 ± 0.04||5.91 ± 0.04||5.88 ± 0.04||5.79 ± 0.03||5.82 ± 0.04||5.81 ± 0.04|
|PD (mm) Change From Baseline at 9 Months, Mean ± SE||-1.04 ± 0.07||-0.90 ± 0.54||-1.20** ± 0.07||-1.32 ± 0.07||-1.30 ± 0.07||-1.63*** ± 0.07|
|SE = standard error; SRP = scaling and root planing; PD =
Significantly different from SRP *(P ≤ 0.05); **(P ≤ 0.001).
Significantly different from SRP + vehicle †(Ps ≤ 0,05); ††(P ≤ 0.001).
In these 2 studies, an average of 29.5 (5-114), 31.7 (4-137), and 31 (5-108) sites were treated at baseline in the SRP alone, SRP + vehicle, and SRP + ARESTIN® groups, respectively. When these studies are combined, the mean pocket depth change at 9 months was -1.18 mm, -1.10 mm, and -1.42 mm for SRP alone, SRP + vehicle, and SRP + ARESTIN® , respectively.
Table 2: Numbers (percentage) of Pockets Showing a Change
of Pocket Depth ≥ 2 mm at 9 Months From 2 Multicenter US Clinical Trials
|Study OPI-103A||Study OPI-103B|
|SRP Alone||SRP + Vehicle||SRP + ARESTIN®||SRPAlone||SRP + Vehicle||SRP + ARESTIN®|
|Pockets ≥ 2 mm (% of total)||1046 (31.1%)||927 (25.7%)||1326 (36.5%)||1692 (42.2%)||1710 (40.0%)||2082 (51.0%)|
|Pockets ≥ 3 mm (% of total)||417 (12,4%)||315 (8,7%)||548 (15.1%)||553 (13.8%)||524 (12.3%)||704 (17.3%)|
SRP + ARESTIN® resulted in a greater percentage of pockets showing a change of PD ≥ 2 mm and ≥ 3 mm compared to SRP alone at 9 months, as shown in Table 2.
Table 3: Mean Pocket Depth Changes (SE) in
Subpopulations, Studies 103A and 103B Combined
|SRPAlone||SRP +Vehicle||SRP +AREST1N®|
|Smokers||n = 91||n = 90||n = 90|
|-0.96 ± 0.09 mm||-0.98 ± 0.07 mm||-1,24 ± 0.09 mm**|
|Nonsmokers||n = 159||n = 159||n = 159|
|-1.31 ± 0.06 mm||-1.17 ± 0.07 mm||-1,53 ± 0.06 mm**|
|Patients >50 YOA||n = 21||n = 81||n = 107|
|-1.07 ± 0.09 mm||-0.92 ± 0.08 mm||-1.42 ± 0.08 mm**|
|Patients ≤ 50 YOA||n = 167||n = 168||n = 142|
|-1.24 ± 0.06 mm||-1.19 ± 0.06 mm||-1.43 ± 0.07 mm*|
|Patients With CV Disease||n = 36||n = 29||n = 36|
|-0.99 ± 0.13 mm||-1.06 ± 0.14 mm||-1.56 ± 0.14 mm**|
|Patients W/O CV Disease||n =214||n = 220||n =213|
|-1.22 ± 0.06 mm||-1.11 ± 0.05 mm||-1.40 ± 0.06 mm**|
|SRP = scaling and root planing; YOA = years of age; CV =
*SRP vs SRP + ARESTIN® P ≤ 0.05; **SRP vs SRP + ARESTIN® P ≤ 0.001.
In both studies, the following patient subgroups were prospectively analyzed; smokers, patients over and under 50 years of age, and patients with a previous history of cardiovascular disease. The results of the combined studies are presented in Table 3. In smokers, the mean reduction in pocket depth at 9 months was less in all treatment groups than in nonsmokers, but the reduction in mean pocket depth at 9 months with SRP + ARESTIN® was significantly greater than with SRP + vehicle or SRP alone.
Table 4: Mean Pocket Depth Change In Patients With Mean
Baseline PD ≥ 5 mm, ≥ 6 mm, and ≥ 7 mm at 9 Months From 2
Multicenter US Clinical Trial
|Mean Baseline Pocket Depth||Study OPI-103A||Study OPI-103B|
|SRP Alone||SRP + Vehicle||SRP + ARESTIN®||SRP Alone||SRP + Vehicle||SRP + ARESTIN®|
|≥ 5mm(n)||-1.04 mm (124)||-0.90 mm (123)||-1.20 mm* (121)||-1.32 mm (126)||-1.30 mm (126)||-1.63 mm* (128)|
|≥ 6mm(n)||-0.91 mm (34)||-0.77 mm (46)||-1.40 mm* (45)||-1.33 mm (37)||-1.46 mm (40)||-1.69 mm* (25)|
|≥ 7 mm (n)||-1.10mm (4)||-0.46 mm (5)||-1.91mm (3)||-1.72 mm (3)||-1.11 mm (3)||-2.84 mm (2)|
|*Statistically significant comparison between SRP + ARESTIN® and SRP alone.|
The combined data from these 2 studies also show that for pockets 5 mm to 7 mm at baseline, greater reductions in pocket depth occurred in pockets that were deeper at
1. Stratton CW, Lorian V, Mechanisms of action of antimicrobial agents: general principles and mechanisms for selected classes of antibiotics. In: Antibiotics in Laboratory Medicine. 4th ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams and Wilkins; 1996.2. Slots J, Rams TE. Antibiotics in periodontal therapy: advantages and disadvantages. J Clin Periodontal 1990;17:479-493.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/8/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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