Arsenic Poisoning (cont.)
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Arsenic facts
- What is arsenic?
- What is inorganic arsenic?
- What is organic arsenic?
- What are the symptoms of arsenic poisoning?
- How is arsenic poisoning diagnosed?
- How is arsenic poisoning treated?
- What is the prognosis (outcome) of arsenic poisoning?
- What foods (rice), products (apple juice) , or liquids (water) is arsenic found in, where it is used, and what are safe limits?
- Find a local Doctor in your town
How is arsenic poisoning treated?
Acute toxic inorganic arsenic exposure and arsine gas exposure can rapidly result in death, and there are only a few ways to possibly save the patient's life. Hemodialysis can remove arsenic from the bloodstream, but only before it binds to the tissues so there is only a short time window for this treatment to work. Similarly, arsine binds to and causes rapid destruction of red blood cells, so blood transfusions and exchange transfusions may help the patient. In addition, if the arsenic was ingested, stomach or bowel irrigation may be attempted, but there is no good data to indicate these will be successful. Consultation with a nephrologists and a toxicologist as soon as possible is recommended; other consultants may need to be called (hematologist, psychiatrist, or others).
Chelation therapy (the use of drugs that selectively bind and effectively inactivate substances) is usually begun quickly through an intravenous line. The drug and the bound arsenic is then excreted through the urine. The chelation drug of choice is Dimercaprol (also termed BAL in oil); Succimer (DMSA) has also been used successfully, and Dimerval (DMPS) may also work as a chelator, but it is not readily available in the US.
What is the prognosis (outcome) of arsenic poisoning?
If the patient survives an acute toxic exposure, most will develop some degree of nerve damage to the peripheral nerves (sensory and motor disturbances); many survivors may have cardiac, liver, renal, and skin problems; the prognosis is fair to poor. Chronic poisoning and organic arsenic exposure have better outcomes with fewer and less severe problems.
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