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The mean oral LD50 of ARTANE (trihexyphenidyl) has been reported to be 365 mg/kg (range, 325 to 410 mg/kg) in mice and 1660 mg/kg (1420 to 1940 mg/kg) in rats. At a dose of 40 mg/kg, dogs have exhibited emesis, restlessness followed by drowsiness, equilibrium disturbances, and mydriasis.
In humans, doses up to 300 mg (5 mg/kg) have been ingested without fatalities or sequelae. However, rare cases of death associated with trihexyphenidyl overdosages taken in conjunction with other CNS-depressant agents have been reported or in patients with a compromised respiratory condition. Trihexyphenidyl blood concentrations associated with the fatalities ranged from 0.03 to 0.80 mg/l.
Signs and Symptoms
Overdosage with ARTANE (trihexyphenidyl) produces typical central symptoms of atropine intoxication (the central anticholinergic syndrome). Correct diagnosis depends upon recognition of the peripheral signs of parasympathetic blockade, including dilated and sluggish pupils; warm, dry skin; facial flushing; decreased secretions of the mouth, pharynx, nose, and bronchi; foul-smelling breath; elevated temperature; tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias; decreased bowel sounds; and urinary retention. Neuropsychiatric signs such as delirium, disorientation, anxiety, hallucinations, illusions, confusion, incoherence, agitation, hyperactivity, ataxia, lip smacking and tasting movements, loss of memory, paranoia, combativeness, and seizures may be present. The condition can progress to stupor, coma, paralysis, cardiac and respiratory arrest, and death.
Treatment of acute overdose involves symptomatic and supportive therapy. Gastric lavage or other methods to limit absorption should be instituted. A small dose of diazepam or a short-acting barbiturate may be administered if CNS excitation is observed. Phenothiazines are contraindicated because the toxicity may be intensified due to their antimuscarinic action, causing coma. Respiratory support, artificial respiration or vasopressor agents may be necessary. Hyperpyrexia must be reversed, fluid volume replaced and acid-balance maintained. Urinary catheterization may be necessary. It is not known if ARTANE (trihexyphenidyl) is dialyzable.
ARTANE (trihexyphenidyl) is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to trihexyphenidyl HCl or to any of the tablet or elixir ingredients. Artane (trihexyphenidyl) is also contraindicated in patients with narrow angle glaucoma. Blindness after long-term use due to narrow angle glaucoma has been reported.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/16/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Artane Information
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