July 27, 2016
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Arthrotec

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Arthrotec




Side Effects
Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adverse reaction information for ARTHROTEC is derived from Phase III multinational controlled clinical trials in over 2,000 patients receiving ARTHROTEC 50 or ARTHROTEC 75, as well as from blinded, controlled trials of diclofenac delayed-release tablets and misoprostol tablets.

Gastrointestinal

GI disorders had the highest reported incidence of adverse events for patients receiving ARTHROTEC. These events were generally minor, but led to discontinuation of therapy in 9% of patients on ARTHROTEC and 5% of patients on diclofenac. For GI ulcer rates, [see Clinical Studies].

GI disorder ARTHROTEC Diclofenac
Abdominal pain 21% 15%
Diarrhea 19% 11%
Dyspepsia 14% 11%
Nausea 11% 6%
Flatulence 9% 4%

ARTHROTEC can cause more abdominal pain, diarrhea, and other GI symptoms than diclofenac alone.

Diarrhea and abdominal pain developed early in the course of therapy, and were usually self-limited (resolved after 2 to 7 days). Rare instances of profound diarrhea leading to severe dehydration have been reported in patients receiving misoprostol. Patients with an underlying condition such as inflammatory bowel disease, or those in whom dehydration, were it to occur, would be dangerous, should be monitored carefully if ARTHROTEC is prescribed. The incidence of diarrhea can be minimized by administering ARTHROTEC with food and by avoiding coadministration with magnesium-containing antacids.

Gynecological

Gynecological disorders previously reported with misoprostol use have also been reported for women receiving ARTHROTEC (see below). Postmenopausal vaginal bleeding may be related to administration of ARTHROTEC. If it occurs, diagnostic workup should be undertaken to rule out gynecological pathology [see Boxed Warnings, CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Elderly

Overall, there were no significant differences in the safety profile of ARTHROTEC in over 500 patients 65 years of age or older compared with younger patients.

Other adverse experiences reported occasionally with ARTHROTEC, diclofenac or other NSAIDs, or misoprostol are:

Body as a whole: asthenia, fatigue, malaise.

Central and peripheral nervous system: dizziness, drowsiness, headache, insomnia, paresthesia, vertigo.

Digestive: anorexia, appetite changes, constipation, dry mouth, dysphagia, esophageal ulceration, oesophagitis, eructation, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux, GI neoplasm benign, peptic ulcer, tenesmus, vomiting.

Female reproductive disorders: breast pain, dysmenorrhea, menstrual disorder, menorrhagia, vaginal hemorrhage.

Hemic and lymphatic system: epistaxis, leukopenia, melena, purpura, decreased hematocrit.

Metabolic and nutritional: alanine aminotransferase increased, alkaline phosphatase increased, aspartate aminotransferase increased, dehydration, hyponatremia.

Musculoskeletal system: arthralgia, myalgia.

Psychiatric: anxiety, concentration impaired, depression, irritability.

Respiratory system: asthma, coughing, hyperventilation.

Skin and appendages: alopecia,eczema, pemphigoid reaction, photosensitivity, sweating increased, pruritus.

Special senses: taste perversion, tinnitus.

Renal and urinary disorders: dysuria, nocturia, polyuria, proteinuria, urinary tract infection.

Vision: diplopia.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified druing post approval of ARTHROTEC, diclofenac or misoprostol. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from apopulation of unceritan size, it is not always possible to reliable estimate their fequesncy or establish a causal relationsip to drug exposure.

Body as a whole: death, fever, infection, sepsis, chills, edema.

Cardiovascular system: arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, hypertension, hypotension, increased CPK, increased LDH, myocardial infarction, palpitations, phlebitis, premature ventricular contractions, syncope, tachycardia, vasculitis.

Central and peripheral nervous system: coma, convulsions, hyperesthesia, hypertonia, hypoesthesia, meningitis, migraine, neuralgia, somnolence, stroke, tremor.

Congenital, familial and genetic disorders: birth defects.

Digestive: enteritis, GI bleeding, glossitis, heartburn, hematemesis, hemorrhoids, intestinal perforation, stomatitis and ulcerative stomatitis.

Female reproductive disorders: intermenstrual bleeding, leukorrhea, vaginitis, uterine cramping, uterine hemorrhage.

Hemic and lymphatic system: agranulocytosis, anemia, aplastic anemia, coagulation time increased, ecchymosis, eosinophilia, hemolytic anemia, leukocytosis, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, pulmonary embolism, rectal bleeding, thrombocythemia, thrombocytopenia.

Hypersensitivity: angioedema, laryngeal/pharyngeal edema, urticaria.

Liver and biliary system: abnormal hepatic function, bilirubinemia, liver failure, pancreatitis, hepatitis, jaundice.

Male reproductive disorders: impotence, perineal pain.

Metabolic and nutritional: BUN increased, glycosuria, gout, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, hypoglycemia, periorbital edema, porphyria, weight changes, fluid retention.

Pregnancy, puerperium and perinatal conditions: abnormal uterine contractions, uterine rupture/perforation, retained placenta, amniotic fluid embolism, incomplete abortion, premature birth, fetal death.

Psychiatric: confusion, disorientation, dream abnormalities, hallucinations, nervousness, paranoia, psychotic reaction.

Reproductive system and breast disorders: female fertility decreased.

Respiratory system: dyspnea, pneumonia, respiratory depression.

Skin and appendages: acne, bruising, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, pruritus ani, rash, skin ulceration, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, cutaneous reactions (bullous eruption).

Special senses: hearing impairment, taste loss.

Renal and urinary disorders: cystitis, hematuria, interstitial nephritis, micturition frequency, nephrotic syndrome, oliguria, papillary necrosis, renal failure, glomerulonephritis membranous, glomerulonephritis minimal lesion, glomerulohephritis.

Vision: amblyopia, blurred vision, conjunctivitis, glaucoma, iritis, lacrimation abnormal, night blindness, vision abnormal.

Read the Arthrotec (diclofenac sodium, misoprostol) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

DRUG INTERACTIONS

See Table 1 for clinically significant drug interactions with diclofenac/misoprostol.

Table 1: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Diclofenac/Misoprostol

Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis
Clinical Impact:
  • Diclofenac and anticoagulants such as warfarin have a synergistic effect on bleeding. The concomitant use of diclofenac and anticoagulants have an increased risk of serious bleeding compared to the use of either drug alone.
  • Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Case-control and cohort epidemiological studies showed that concomitant use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and an NSAID may potentiate the risk of bleeding more than an NSAID alone.
Intervention: Monitor patients with concomitant use of ARTHROTEC with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for signs of bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Aspirin
Clinical Impact: Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Intervention: Concomitant use of ARTHROTEC and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  ARTHROTEC is not a substitute for low dose asprin for cardiovascular protection.
ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-Blockers
Clinical Impact
  • NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or beta-blockers (including propranolol).
  • In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or have renal impairment, co-administration of an NSAID with ACE inhibitors or ARBs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
Intervention:
  • The concomitant administration of these drugs should be done with caution. Patients should be adequately hydrated and the clinical need to monitor the renal function should be assessed at the beginning of the concomitant treatment and periodically thereafter.
  • During concomitant use of ARTHROTEC and ACE-inhibitors, ARBs, or beta-blockers, monitor blood pressure to ensure that the desired blood pressure is obtained.
  • During concomitant use of ARTHROTEC and ACE-inhibitors or ARBs in patients who are elderly, volume-depleted, or have impaired renal function, monitor for signs of worsening renal function [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Diuretics
Clinical Impact: Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
Intervention: During concomitant use of ARTHROTEC with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Digoxin
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of diclofenac with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.
Intervention: During concomitant use of ARTHROTEC and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.
Lithium
Clinical Impact: NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
Intervention: During concomitant use of ARTHROTEC and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.
Methotrexate
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction).
Intervention: During concomitant use of ARTHROTEC and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.
Cyclosporine
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of diclofenac and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine's nephrotoxicity.
Intervention: During concomitant use of ARTHROTEC and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.
NSAIDs and Salicylates
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of diclofenac with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Intervention: The concomitant use of ARTHROTEC with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended.
Pemetrexed
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of diclofenac and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).
Intervention:

During concomitant use of ARTHROTEC and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity.

NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed.

In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration.

Antacids
Clinical Impact: Antacids reduce the bioavailability of misoprostol acid. Antacids may also delay absorption of diclofenac. Magnesium-containing antacids exacerbate misoprostol-associated diarrhea.
Intervention: Concomitant use of ARTHROTEC and magnesium-containing antacids is not recommended.
Corticosteroids
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of corticosteroids with diclofenac may increase the risk of GI ulceration or bleeding.
Intervention Monitor patients with concomitant use of ARTHROTEC with corticosteroids for signs of bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
CYP2C9 Inhibitors or Inducers
Clinical Impact: Diclofenac is metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, predominantly by CYP2C9. Co-administration of diclofenac with CYP2C9 inhibitors (e.g. voriconzaole) may enhance the exposure and toxicity of diclofenac [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] whereas co-administration with CYP2C9 inducers (e.g., rifampin) may lead to compromised efficacy of diclofenac.
Intervention: CYP 2C9 inhibitors: When concomitant use of CYP2C9 inhibitors is necessary, the total daily dose of diclofenac should not exceed the lowest recommended dose of ARTHROTEC 50 twice daily [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. CYP2C9 inducers: A dosage adjustment may be warranted when ARTHROTEC is administered with CYP2C9 inducers. Administer the separate products of misoprostol and diclofenac if a higher dose of diclofenac is deemed necessary.

Read the Arthrotec Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Last reviewed on RxList: 6/20/2016

Side Effects
Interactions

Arthrotec - User Reviews

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