July 25, 2016
Recommended Topic Related To:

Arthrotec

"The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee voted yesterday to recommend premarket approval of the Cartiva Synthetic Cartilage Implant for use in pati"...

A A A

Arthrotec




Warnings
Precautions

WARNINGS

Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section

PRECAUTIONS

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as diclofenac, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery

Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10–14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].

Post-MI Patients

Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post-MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.

Avoid the use of ARTHROTEC in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If ARTHROTEC is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation

NSAIDs, including diclofenac, cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occurred in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months, and in about 2%-4% of patients treated for one year. However, even short-term NSAID therapy is not without risk.

Risk Factors For GI Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation

Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding who used NSAIDs had a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients without these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include longer duration of NSAID therapy; concomitant use of oral corticosteroids, aspirin, anticoagulants, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); smoking; use of alcohol; older age; and poor general health status. Most postmarketing reports of fatal GI events occurred in elderly or debilitated patients. Additionally, patients with advanced liver disease and/or coagulopathy are at increased risk for GI bleeding.

Strategies To Minimize The GI Risks In NSAID-Treated Patients:
  • Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest possible duration.
  • Avoid administration of more than one NSAID at a time.
  • Avoid use in patients at high risk unless benefits are expected to outweigh the increased risk of bleeding. For such patients, as well as those with active GI bleeding, consider alternate therapies other than NSAIDs.
  • Remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy.
  • If a serious GI adverse event is suspected, promptly initiate evaluation and treatment, and discontinue ARTHROTEC until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out.
  • In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, monitor patients more closely for evidence of GI bleeding [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Hepatotoxicity

In clinical trials with ARTHROTEC, meaningful elevation of ALT (SGPT, more than 3 times the ULN [ULN = the upper limit of the normal range]) occurred in 1.6% of 2,184 patients treated with ARTHROTEC and in 1.4% of 1,691 patients treated with diclofenac sodium. These increases were generally transient, and enzyme levels returned to within the normal range upon discontinuation of therapy with ARTHROTEC. The misoprostol component of ARTHROTEC does not appear to exacerbate the hepatic effects caused by the diclofenac sodium component.

In clinical trials of diclofenac-containing products, meaningful elevations (i.e., more than 3 times the ULN) of AST (SGOT) occurred in about 2% of approximately 5,700 patients at some time during diclofenac treatment (ALT was not measured in all studies).

In a large, open-label, controlled trial of 3,700 patients treated with oral diclofenac sodium for 2-6 months, patients were monitored first at 8 weeks and 1,200 patients were monitored again at 24 weeks. Meaningful elevations of ALT and/or AST occurred in about 4% of patients and included marked elevations (i.e., greater than 8 times the ULN) in about 1% of the 3,700 patients. In that open-label study, a higher incidence of borderline (less than 3 times the ULN), moderate (3-8 times the ULN), and marked (greater than 8 times the ULN) elevations of ALT or AST was observed in patients receiving diclofenac when compared to other NSAIDs. Elevations in transaminases were seen more frequently in patients with osteoarthritis than in those with rheumatoid arthritis.

Almost all meaningful elevations in transaminases were detected before patients became symptomatic. Abnormal tests occurred during the first 2 months of therapy with diclofenac in 42 of the 51 patients in all trials who developed marked transaminase elevations.

In postmarketing reports, cases of drug-induced hepatotoxicity have been reported in the first month, and in some cases, the first 2 months of therapy, but can occur at any time during treatment with diclofenac. Postmarketing surveillance has reported cases of severe hepatic reactions, including liver necrosis, jaundice, fulminant hepatitis with and without jaundice, and liver failure. Some of these reported cases resulted in fatalities or liver transplantation.

In a European retrospective population-based, case-controlled study, 10 cases of diclofenac associated drug-induced liver injury with current use compared with non-use of diclofenac were associated with a statistically significant 4-fold adjusted odds ratio of liver injury. In this particular study, based on an overall number of 10 cases of liver injury associated with diclofenac, the adjusted odds ratio increased further with female gender, doses of 150 mg or more, and duration of use for more than 90 days.

Physicians should measure transaminases at baseline and periodically in patients receiving long-term therapy with diclofenac, because severe hepatotoxicity may develop without a prodrome of distinguishing symptoms. The optimum times for making the first and subsequent transaminase measurements are not known. Based on clinical trial data and postmarketing experiences, transaminases should be monitored within 4 to 8 weeks after initiating treatment with diclofenac. However, severe hepatic reactions can occur at any time during treatment with diclofenac.

If abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, if clinical signs and/or symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dark urine, etc.), ARTHROTEC should be discontinued immediately.

Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, diarrhea, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and "flu-like" symptoms). If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), discontinue ARTHROTEC immediately, and perform a clinical evaluation of the patient.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse liver related event in patients treated with ARTHROTEC, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Exercise caution when prescribing ARTHROTEC with concomitant drugs that are known to be potentially hepatotoxic (e.g., antibiotics, anti-epileptics).

Hypertension

NSAIDs, including ARTHROTEC, can lead to new onset of hypertension or worsening of pre-existing hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, thiazide diuretics, or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Monitor blood pressure (BP) during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.

Heart Failure And Edema

The Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists' Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials demonstrated an approximately two-fold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective-treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death.

Additionally, fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs. Use of diclofenac may blunt the CV effects of several therapeutic agents used to treat these medical conditions (e.g., diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Avoid the use of ARTHROTEC in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If ARTHROTEC is used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure.

Renal Toxicity And Hyperkalemia

Renal Toxicity

Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, dehydration, hypovolemia, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors or ARBs, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.

No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of ARTHROTEC in patients with advanced renal disease. The renal effects of ARTHROTEC may hasten the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with pre-existing renal disease.

Correct volume status in dehydrated or hypovolemic patients prior to initiating ARTHROTEC. Monitor renal function in patients with renal or hepatic impairment, heart failure, dehydration, or hypovolemia during use of ARTHROTEC [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Avoid the use of ARTHROTEC in patients with advanced renal disease unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening renal function. If ARTHROTEC is used in patients with advanced renal disease, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.

Hyperkalemia

Increases in serum potassium concentration, including hyperkalemia, with use of NSAIDs, even in some patients without renal impairment. In patients with normal renal function, these effects have been attributed to a hyporeninemic-hypoaldosteronism state.

Anaphylactic Reactions

Diclofenac/misoprostol has been associated with anaphylactic reactions in patients with and without known hypersensitivity to diclofenac/misoprostol and in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Seek emergency help if an anaphylactic reaction occurs.

Exacerbation Of Asthma Related To Aspirin Sensitivity

A subpopulation of patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma which may include chronic rhinosinusitis complicated by nasal polyps; severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm; and/or intolerance to aspirin and other NSAIDs. Because cross-reactivity between aspirin and other NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, ARTHROTEC is contraindicated in patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. When ARTHROTEC is used in patients with preexisting asthma (without known aspirin sensitivity), monitor patients for changes in the signs and symptoms of asthma.

Serious Skin Reactions

NSAIDs, including diclofenac, can cause serious skin adverse reactions such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Inform patients about the signs and symptoms of serious skin reactions, and to discontinue the use of ARTHROTEC at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. ARTHROTEC is contraindicated in patients with previous serious skin reactions to NSAIDs [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].

Premature Closure Of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus

Diclofenac may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. ARTHROTEC is contraindicated in pregnant woment. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Verify the pregnancy status of females of reproductive potential prior to initiation of ARTHOTEC. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with ARTHROTEC [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and Use In Specific Populations].

Hematologic Toxicity

Anemia has occurred in NSAID-treated patients. This may be due to occult or gross blood loss, fluid retention, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. If a patient treated with ARTHROTEC has any signs or symptoms of anemia, monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit.

NSAIDs, including ARTHROTEC, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Co-morbid conditions such as coagulation disorders or concomitant use of warfarin and other anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), and serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may increase this risk. Monitor these patients for signs of bleeding [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Masking Of Inflammation And Fever

The pharmacological activity of ARTHROTEC in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of diagnostic signs in detecting infections.

Laboratory Monitoring

Because serious GI bleeding, hepatotoxicity, and renal injury can occur without warning symptoms or signs, consider monitoring patients on long-term NSAID treatment with a CBC and a chemistry profile periodically [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Patient Counseling Information

Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide). Inform patients, families, or their caregivers of the following information before initiating therapy with ARTHROTEC and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy.

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity
  • Advise females that use of ARTHROTEC during pregnancy can result in maternal and fetal harm, including abortion, premature birth, birth defects and uterine rupture [see Use In Specific Populations].
  • Advise patients not to give ARTHROTEC to other females of reproductive potential [see Boxed Warning].
  • Advise females of reproductive potential of the potential risk to a fetus and to use effective contraception during treatment with ARTHROTEC. Advise females to inform their healthcare provider of a known or suspected pregnancy [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and Use In Specific Populations].
Premature Closure Of the Fetal Ductus Arteriosus

Diclofenac may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. ARTHROTEC is contraindicated in pregnant women [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use In Specific Populations].

Infertility

Advise females of reproductive potential that ARTHROTEC may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women [see Use In Specific Populations].

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of cardiovascular thrombotic events, including chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, or slurring of speech, and to report any of these symptoms to their health care provider immediately [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation

Advise patients to report symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis to their health care provider. In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, inform patients of the increased risk for and the signs and symptoms of GI bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Hepatotoxicity

Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, diarrhea, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and "flu-like" symptoms). If these occur, instruct patients to stop ARTHROTEC and seek immediate medical therapy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Heart Failure And Edema

Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of congestive heart failure including shortness of breath, unexplained weight gain, or edema and to contact their healthcare provider if such symptoms occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Anaphylactic Reactions

Inform patients of the signs of an anaphylactic reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). Instruct patients to seek immediate emergency help if these occur [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Serious Skin Reactions

Advise patients to stop ARTHROTEC immediately if they develop any type of rash and to contact their healthcare provider as soon as possible [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Avoid Concomitant Use Of NSAIDs

Inform patients that the concomitant use of ARTHROTEC with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) is not recommended due to the increased risk of gastrointestinal toxicity, and little or no increase in efficacy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Alert patients that NSAIDs may be present in “over the counter” medications for treatment of colds, fever, or insomnia.

Use Of NSAIDS And Low-Dose Aspirin

Inform patients not to use low-dose aspirin concomitantly with ARTHROTEC until they talk to their healthcare provider [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

Long-term animal studies to evaluate the potential for carcinogenesis and animal studies to evaluate the effects on fertility have been performed with each component of ARTHROTEC given alone.

The carcinogenicity potential of ARTHROTEC (diclofenac sodium and misoprostol) has not been studied in animals. In a 24 month rat carcinogenicity study, misoprostol administered orally at doses up to 2.4 mg/kg/day (14.4 mg/m2/day, 24 times the recommended maximum human dose of 0.6 mg/m2/day) was not tumorigenic. In a 21 month mouse carcinogenicity study, misoprostol administered orally at doses up to 16 mg/kg/day (48 mg/m2/day), 80 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area, was not tumorigenic.

In a 24 month rat carcinogenicity study, diclofenac sodium administered orally at up to 2 mg/kg/day (12 mg/m2/day) was not tumorigenic. In a 24 month mouse carcinogenicity study, oral diclofenac sodium at doses up to 0.3 mg/kg/day (0.9 mg/m2/day, 0.006 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area) in males and 1 mg/kg/day (3 mg/m2/day, 0.02 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area) in females was not tumorigenic.

Mutagenesis

ARTHROTEC (diclofenac sodium and misoprostol combinations in 250:1 ratio) was not genotoxic in the Ames test, the Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO/HGPRT) forward mutation test, the rat lymphocyte chromosome aberration test, or the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.

Impairment Of Fertility

The effects of ARTHROTEC (diclofenac sodium and misoprostol) on male or female fertility have not been studied in animals; however, there are data with diclofenac sodium and misoprostol given alone. Misoprostol, when administered to male and female breeding rats in an oral dose range of 0.1 to 10 mg/kg/day (0.6 to 60 mg/m2/day, 1 to 100 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area) produced dose-related pre-and postimplantation losses and a significant decrease in the number of live pups born at the highest dose (60 mg/m2/day, 100 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area). Diclofenac sodium at oral doses up to 4 mg/kg/day (24 mg/m2/day, 0.16 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area) was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance of male and female rats.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Risk Summary

ARTHROTEC is contraindicated in pregnant women [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of ARTHROTEC in pregnant women; however, there is information available about the active drug components of ARTHROTEC, misoprostol and diclofenac sodium. Administration of misoprostol to pregnant women can cause abortion, premature birth, or birth defects. Congenital anomalies sometimes associated with fetal death have been reported subsequent to the unsuccessful use of misoprostol as an abortifacient, but the drug's teratogenic mechanism has not been demonstrated. Use of NSAIDS, including diclofenac, during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of fetal ductus arteriosus [see Data]. There are clinical considerations when misoprostol and diclofenac are used in pregnant women [see Clinical Considerations]. In reproduction studies with pregnant rabbits, there were no skeletal or visceral malformations when the combination of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol was administered during organogenesis at doses less than the maximum recommended human doses (MRHD); however, embryotoxicity was observed at this exposure [see Data]. Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as diclofenac, resulted in increased pre-and post-implantation loss. If a woman becomes pregnant while taking ARTHROTEC, discontinue the drug and advise the woman of the potential risks to her and to a fetus.

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically r,ecognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Maternal Adverse Reactions

Misoprostol may produce uterine contractions, uterine bleeding, and expulsion of the products of conception. Misoprostol has been used to ripen the cervix, to induce labor, and to treat postpartum hemorrhage, outside of its approved indication. A major adverse effect of these uses is hyperstimulation of the uterus. Uterine rupture, amniotic fluid embolism, severe bleeding, shock, and maternal death have been reported when misoprostol was administered to pregnant women to induce labor to induce abortion beyond the eight week of pregnancy. Higher doses of misoprostol, including the 100 mcg tablet, may increase the risk of complications from uterine hyperstimulation. ARTHROTEC, which contains 200 mcg of misoprostol, is likely to have a greater risk of uterine hyperstimulation than the 100 mcg tablet of misoprostol. Abortions caused by misoprostol may be incomplete. Cases of amniotic fluid embolism, which resulted in maternal and fetal death, have been reported with use of misoprostol during pregnancy. Severe vaginal bleeding, retained placenta, shock, and pelvic pain have also been reported. These women were administered misoprostol vaginally and/or orally over a range of doses. If a woman is or becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the drug should be discontinued and the patient apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

ARTHROTEC is contraindicated in pregnant women [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].

Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions

Misoprostol

Misoprostol may endanger pregnancy (may cause abortion) and thereby cause harm to the fetus when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of misoprostol for the induction of labor in the third trimester was associated with uterine hyperstimulation with resulting changes in the fetal heart rate (fetal bradycardia) and fetal death. ARTHROTEC is contraindicated in pregnant women [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].

Diclofenac

Diclofenac may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus in a fetus [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Labor or Delivery

There are no studies on the effects of ARTHROTEC or diclofenac during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDS, including diclofenac, are known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth. In humans, some case reports and studies have associated misoprostol with risk of stillbirth, uterine hyperstimulation, perineal tear, amniotic fluid embolism, severe bleeding, shock, uterine rupture and death.

Data

Human Data

Misoprostol

Several reports in the literature associate the use of misoprostol during the first trimester of pregnancy with skull defects, cranial nerve palsies, facial malformations, and limb defects.

Diclofenac

Data from observational studies regarding potential embryo-fetal risks of NSAID use (including diclofenac) in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. However, use of NSAIDS (including diclofenac) during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus.

Animal Data

The reproductive and developmental effects of both the combination of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol and each component of ARTHROTEC alone have been studied in animals. In all studies there was no evidence of teratogenicity. In an oral teratology study in pregnant rabbits, ARTHROTEC was administered at dose combinations (diclofenac and misoprostol, 250:1 ratio) up to 10 mg/kg/day diclofenac sodium (120 mg/m2/day, 0.8 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area) and 0.04 mg/kg/day misoprostol (0.48 mg/m2/day, 0.8 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area) and there was no evidence of teratogenicity. At the high dose, there was evidence of embryotoxicity (resorption and decreased fetal body weight) and maternal toxicity (decreased food intake and weight gain).

In oral teratology studies with misoprostol in pregnant rats at doses up to 1.6 mg/kg/day (9.6 mg/m2/day, 16 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area) and pregnant rabbits at doses up to 1.0 mg/kg/day (12 mg/m2/day, 20 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area), there was no evidence of teratogenicity. In oral teratology studies with diclofenac sodium in pregnant mice at doses up to 20 mg/kg/day (60 mg/m2/day, 0.4 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area), pregnant rats at doses up to 10 mg/kg/day (60 mg/m2/day, 0.4 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area) and pregnant rabbits at doses up to 10 mg/kg/day (120 mg/m2/day, 0.8 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area), there was no evidence of teratogenicity.

Lactation

Risk Summary

No lactation studies have been conducted with ARTHROTEC; however, limited published literature reports that diclofenac and the active metabolite of misoprostol are present in breast milk [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for ARTHROTEC and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the ARTHROTEC or from the underlying maternal condition.

Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential

Pregnancy Testing

Verify pregnancy status for females of reproductive potential within 2 weeks prior to initiating ARTHROTEC.

Contraception

Females

ARTHROTEC can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use In Specific Populations]. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with ARTHROTEC.

Infertility

Females

Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including ARTHROTEC, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin-mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including ARTHOTEC, in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of ARTHROTEC in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Of the more than 2,100 subjects in clinical studies with ARTHROTEC, 25% were 65 and over, while 6% were 75 and over. In studies with diclofenac, 31% of subjects were 65 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Diclofenac is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to ARTHROTEC may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Based on studies in the elderly, no adjustment of the dose of ARTHROTEC is necessary in the elderly for pharmacokinetic reasons [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY], although many elderly may need to receive a reduced dose because of low body weight or disorders associated with aging.

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Last reviewed on RxList: 6/20/2016

Warnings
Precautions

Arthrotec - User Reviews

Arthrotec User Reviews

Now you can gain knowledge and insight about a drug treatment with Patient Discussions.

Here is a collection of user reviews for the medication Arthrotec sorted by most helpful. Patient Discussions FAQs

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

 

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


Arthritis

Get the latest treatment options