Artificial Sweeteners (cont.)
Betty Kovacs, MS, RD
Betty is a Registered Dietitian who earned her B.S. degree in Food and Nutrition from Marymount College of Fordham University and her M.S. degree in Clinical Nutrition from New York University. She is the Co-Director and Director of nutrition for the New York Obesity Research Center Weight Loss Program.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- What role does sugar play in our diet?
- What is the difference between nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners?
- What are sugar alcohols?
- Are there any safety concerns with sugar alcohols?
- What are nonnutritive sweeteners?
- Saccharin: What are the pros?
- Saccharin: What are the cons?
- Aspartame: What are the pros?
- Aspartame: What are the cons?
- Sucralose: What are the pros?
- Sucralose: What are the cons?
- Acesulfame K: What are the pros?
- Acesulfame K: What are the cons?
- Neotame: What are the pros?
- Neotame: What are the cons?
- Do artificial sweeteners cause weight gain?
- Can everyone consume artificial sweeteners?
- Is it safe to blend artificial sweeteners?
- Can you get something for nothing?
- Sugar FAQs
Can you get something for nothing?
Our innate desire for sweetness may be interfering with our ability to judge right from wrong. There is nothing in our diet that we can consume without a cost. The cost can be excess calories, fat, protein, or carbohydrates. It's even possible to consume excess water. We see calorie- and sugar-free sweeteners and believe that there isn't a cost, but maybe there is. Unfortunately, the research that has been done is failing us. With two sides battling over the safety of these sweeteners, it's imperative that we get the answers from the "gold standard" of research studies: independent, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies. It's our responsibility to be aware of what we are consuming and to protect our safety.
Acceptable daily intakes have been set for each nonnutritive sweetener for a reason; we can't ingest unlimited quantities of these additives. If you believe that you are experiencing any of the symptoms from the consumption of a nutritive or nonnutritive sweetener, then eliminating them from your diet is the best way to determine if it's so. Sweeteners are not essential nutrients in our diet, so they exist to nurture our sweet tooth, not our bodies.
Abou-Donia, M.B. J Toxicol Environ Health. 71.21 (2008): 1415-29.
Bell, W. Int J Occup Environ Health. Oct-Dec 2002;vol 8(4):pp 387-393.
Bertino, M. Am J Clin Nutr. 36 (1982): 1134-44.
De Graaf, C. Physiol Behav. 67.4 Oct. 1999: 513-520.
Drewnowski, A. Am J Clin Nutr. 59 (1994): 338-345.
Duyuff, R.L. Complete Food and Nutrition Guide, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2006.
Guthrie, J.F. J Am Diet Assoc, Jan 2000;vol 100(1):pp 43-51.
Halldorsson, T.I. Am J Clin Nutr, Sept 2010;vol 92(3):pp 626-33.
Hull, J.S. Sweet Poison, New Horizon Press, 2001
Kauffman, G.B. Ambix. 1978;vol. 25:pp 101-207.
Lavin, J.H. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. Jan 1997.vol 21(1):pp 31-42.
Lean, M.E. BMJ, Oct 2004;vol 329(7469):pp 755-756
Liem, D.G. Physiol Behav, 2004;vol 83:pp 412-9.
Ma, J. Br J Nut, Sep 2010;vol 104(6):pp 803-6.
Maone, T.R. Dev Psychobiol, Mar 1990;vol 23(2):pp 179-191.
Mattes, R.D. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;vol 57:pp 373-81.
Mattes, R.D. Am J Clin Nutr. Jan 2009;vol 89(1):pp 1-14.
Mazur, R.H. J Med Chem. 1970;vol 12:pp 1217-21.
Mercola J. Sweet Deception, Thomas Nelson, Inc, 2006.
Murphy SP. Am J Clin Nutr, Oct 2003;vol 78(4):pp 826S-833S.
Newman, L.C. Headache, Oct 2001;vol 41(9):pp 899-901.
Parks, E.J. Am J Clin Nutr, Feb 2000;vol 71(2):pp 412-433.
Position of the American Dietetic Association: Use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004;vol 104:pp 255- 275.
Raben, A. Am J Clin Nutr, Oct 2002;vol 76(4):pp 721-729.
Roberts, H.J. Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic, Sunshine Sentinel Press, 2001.
Rolls, B.J. Phsyiol Behav, July 1990;vol 48(1):pp 19-26.
Sheiham, A. Br Dent J, July 1991;vol 171(2):pp 63-65.
Soffritti, M. Environ Health Perspect, Sept 2007;vol 115(9):pp 1293-7.
St-Onge, M.P. Nutr Rev, June 2003;vol 61(6 pt 1):pp 219-221.
The International Food Information Council
The Sugar Association
Tordoff, M.G. Physiol Behav, Mar 1990;vol 47(3):pp 555-559.
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Van den Eeden, S.K. Neurology, Oct 1994;vol 44(10):pp 1787-1793.
Walton, R.G. Bio Psychiatry. July 1993;vol 34(1-2):pp 13-17.
Weihrauch, M.R. Ann Oncol, Oct 2004;vol 15(10):pp 1460-1465.
Weisburger, J.H. Fund App Toxicol. May 1994;vol 22(4):pp 483-493.
Whitehouse, C.R. AAOHN J. Jun 2008;vol 56(6):pp 251-259.
Wurtman, R.J. Am J Clin Nutr, Apr 1987;vol 45(4):pp 799-803.
Yang, Q.Y. Yale J Biol Med, June 2010;vol 83(2):pp 101-108.
Last Editorial Review: 12/13/2010
Weight Loss Wisdom
Get tips, recipes and inspiration.