Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (cont.)
John Mersch, MD, FAAP
Dr. Mersch received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of California, San Diego, and prior to entering the University Of Southern California School Of Medicine, was a graduate student (attaining PhD candidate status) in Experimental Pathology at USC. He attended internship and residency at Children's Hospital Los Angeles.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children facts
- What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
- What is the cause of ADHD?
- What are ADHD symptoms and signs?
- How is ADHD diagnosed?
- Is ADHD inherited?
- Is ADHD on the increase? If so, why?
- Can ADHD be seen in brain scans of children with the disorder?
- What is the role of alternative therapies in ADHD?
- What are behavioral treatments?
- Which educational interventions have been studied and shown to be effective in the treatment of ADHD?
- What medications are currently being used to treat ADHD?
- What is the relationship between ADHD and other disorders, such as learning disabilities, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, or depression?
- What is the prognosis for individuals with ADHD?
- What is the history of ADHD? How is it related to ADD?
- What are the future research directions for ADHD?
- ADHD FAQs
- Find a local Psychiatrist in your town
What is the prognosis for individuals with ADHD?
Research supports the clinical observation that as many as 50% of children with ADHD will have symptoms persist into adulthood. One caveat needs to be
- Education: Follow-up studies of children with ADHD growing into adolescence showed impairment of academic success. A few studies into adulthood have demonstrated persistence of these findings. Completion of expected schooling, lower achievement scores, and failure of courses are areas of concern.
- Employment: The rate of adult employment of those with and without a diagnosis of ADHD did not vary; however, those with ADHD did have occupations with a lower "job status."
- Socialization issues: As noted above, a significant subset of children with ADHD has an accompanying disruptive behavior disorder (ODD and CD). In studies that followed children with ADHD into adulthood, between 12%-23% have socialization problems (vs. 2%-3% of the general population).
- Substance abuse: The medical literature investigating whether those with ADHD have a higher likelihood for such high-risk behaviors is controversial. The largest study to date supports other smaller studies that indicate ADHD patients who consistently take their medication have twice the likelihood not to utilize drugs or excessive alcohol.
- Driving: Teens with ADHD are two to four times more likely to have motor-vehicle accidents or have their license suspended than peers without such a diagnosis. Impulsivity and inattention again seem to be limited when at-risk teens consistently take their recommended medication.
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