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Attenuvax

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Attenuvax

Side Effects
Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

The following adverse reactions are listed in decreasing order of severity, without regard to causality, within each body system category and have been reported during clinical trials, with use of the marketed vaccine, or with use of polyvalent vaccine containing measles:

Body as a Whole

Panniculitis; atypical measles; fever; syncope; headache; dizziness; malaise; irritability.

Cardiovascular System

Vasculitis.

Digestive System

Diarrhea, vomiting, nausea.

Hemic and Lymphatic System

Thrombocytopenia (see WARNINGS, Thrombocytopenia); purpura; lymphadenopathy; leukocytosis.

Immune System

Anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions have been reported as well as related phenomena such as angioneurotic edema (including peripheral or facial edema) and bronchial spasm in individuals with or without an allergic history.

Musculoskeletal

Arthralgia, myalgia.

Nervous System

Encephalitis; encephalopathy; measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE) (see CONTRAINDICATIONS); subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE); Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS); febrile convulsions; afebrile convulsions or seizures; ataxia; ocular palsies.

Experience from more than 80 million doses of all live measles vaccines given in the U.S. through 1975 indicates that significant central nervous system reactions such as encephalitis and encephalopathy, occurring within 30 days after vaccination, have been temporally associated with measles vaccine very rarely.28 In no case has it been shown that reactions were actually caused by vaccine. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has pointed out that “a certain number of cases of encephalitis may be expected to occur in a large childhood population in a defined period of time even when no vaccines are administered”.29 However, the data suggest the possibility that some of these cases may have been caused by measles vaccines. The risk of such serious neurological disorders following live measles virus vaccine administration remains far less than that for encephalitis and encephalopathy with natural measles (one per two thousand reported cases).30

Post-marketing surveillance of the more than 200 million doses of M-M-R and M-M-R II that have been distributed worldwide over 25 years (1971-1996) indicates that serious adverse events such as encephalitis and encephalopathy continue to be rarely reported.10

There have been reports of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in children who did not have a history of natural measles but did receive measles vaccine. Some of these cases may have resulted from unrecognized measles in the first year of life or possibly from the measles vaccination. Based on estimated nationwide measles vaccine distribution, the association of SSPE cases to measles vaccination is about one case per million vaccine doses distributed. This is far less than the association with natural measles, 6-22 cases of SSPE per million cases of measles. The results of a retrospective case-controlled study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggest that the overall effect of measles vaccine has been to protect against SSPE by preventing measles with its inherent higher risk of SSPE.31

Respiratory System

Pneumonitis (see CONTRAINDICATIONS); cough; rhinitis.

Skin

Stevens-Johnson syndrome; erythema multiforme; urticaria; rash.

Local reactions including burning/stinging at injection site; wheal and flare; redness (erythema); swelling; vesiculation at injection site.

Special Senses — Ear

Nerve deafness; otitis media.

Special Senses — Eye

Retinitis; optic neuritis; papillitis; retrobulbar neuritis; conjunctivitis.

Other

Death from various, and in some cases unknown, causes has been reported rarely following vaccination with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines; however, a causal relationship has not been established. No deaths or permanent sequelae were reported in a published post-marketing surveillance study in Finland involving 1.5 million children and adults who were vaccinated with M-M-R II during 1982-1993.32

Under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986, health care providers and manufacturers are required to record and report certain suspected adverse events occurring within specific time periods after vaccination. However, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has established a Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) which will accept all reports of suspected events.28 A VAERS report form as well as information regarding reporting requirements can be obtained by calling VAERS 1-800-822-7967.

Read the Attenuvax (measles virus vaccine live) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

DRUG INTERACTIONS

See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Use With Other Vaccines.

Immunosuppressive Therapy

The immune status of patients about to undergo immunosuppressive therapy should be evaluated so that the physician can consider whether vaccination prior to the initiation of treatment is indicated (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS).

The ACIP has stated that “patients with leukemia in remission who have not received chemotherapy for at least 3 months may receive live-virus vaccines. Short-term ( < 2 weeks), low- to moderate-dose systemic corticosteroid therapy, topical steroid therapy (e.g., nasal, skin), long-term alternate-day treatment with low to moderate doses of short-acting systemic steroid, and intra-articular, bursal, or tendon injection of corticosteroids are not immunosuppressive in their usual doses and do not contraindicate the administration of measles vaccine.”15

Immune Globulin

Administration of immune globulins concurrently with ATTENUVAX (measles virus vaccine live) may interfere with the expected immune response.15,24

See also PRECAUTIONS, General.

REFERENCES

10. Months of Age, Pediatrics 77(4): 471-476, April 1986. 10. Unpublished data: Files of Merck Research Laboratories.

15. Measles Prevention: Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP), MMWR 38(S-9): 5-22, December 29, 1989.

24. Peter, G.; et al (eds): Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, Twenty-fourth Edition, American Academy of Pediatrics, 344-357, 1997.

28. CDC, Important Information about Measles, Mumps, and Rubella, and Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccines. 1980. 1983.

29. CDC, Measles Surveillance, Report No. 8, p. 23, December 1971.

30. CDC, Encephalitis Surveillance, p. 16, May 1981.

31. CDC, Measles Surveillance, Report No. 11, p. 14, September 1982.

32. Peltola, H.; et al: The elimination of indigenous measles, mumps, and rubella from Finland by a 12-year, two dose vaccination program. N. Engl. J. Med. 331: 1397-1402, 1994.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/2/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Side Effects
Interactions
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