"Among people with early-stage multiple sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of follow-up. Identifying and correcting vitamin D insufficiency could aid in the early treatment of MS."...
The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the prescribing information:
- Hepatotoxicity [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Bone Marrow Effects/Immunosuppression Potential/Infections [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Peripheral Neuropathy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Skin Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Increased Blood Pressure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Respiratory Effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
A total of 2047 patients receiving AUBAGIO (7 mg or 14 mg once daily) constituted the safety population in the pooled analysis of placebo controlled studies in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis; of these, 71% were female. The average age was 37 years.
Table 1 lists adverse reactions in placebo-controlled trials with rates that were at least 2% for AUBAGIO patients and also at least 2% above the rate in placebo patients. The most common were headache, an increase in ALT, diarrhea, alopecia, and nausea. The adverse reaction most commonly associated with discontinuation was an increase in ALT (3.3%, 2.6%, and 2.3% of all patients in the AUBAGIO 7 mg, AUBAGIO 14 mg, and placebo treatment arms, respectively).
Table 1: Adverse Reactions in Pooled
Placebo-Controlled Studies in Patients with Relapsing Forms of Multiple
|Adverse Reaction||AUBAGIO 7 mg
|AUBAGIO 14 mg
|Increase in Alanine aminotransferase||13%||15%||9%|
Four cardiovascular deaths, including three sudden deaths, and one myocardial infarction in a patient with a history of hyperlipidemia and hypertension were reported among approximately 2600 patients exposed to AUBAGIO in the premarketing database. These cardiovascular deaths occurred during uncontrolled extension studies, one to nine years after initiation of treatment. A relationship between AUBAGIO and cardiovascular death has not been established.
Acute Renal Failure
In placebo-controlled studies, creatinine values increased more than 100% over baseline in 8/1045 (0.8%) patients in the 7 mg AUBAGIO group and 6/1002 (0.6%) patients in the 14 mg AUBAGIO group versus 4/997 (0.4%) patients in the placebo group. These elevations were transient. Some elevations were accompanied by hyperkalemia. AUBAGIO may cause acute uric acid nephropathy with transient acute renal failure because AUBAGIO increases renal uric acid clearance.
In clinical trials, 18% of AUBAGIO-treated patients had hypophosphatemia with serum phosphorus levels of at least 0.6 mmol/L, compared to 7% of placebo-treated patients; 4% of AUBAGIO-treated patients had hypophosphatemia with serum phosphorus levels at least 0.3 mmol/L but less than 0.6 mmol/L, compared to 0.8% of placebo-treated patients. No patient in any treatment group had a serum phosphorus below 0.3 mmol/L.
Read the Aubagio (teriflunomide tablets) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Effect of AUBAGIO on CYP2C8 Substrates
Teriflunomide is an inhibitor of CYP2C8 in vivo. In patients taking AUBAGIO, exposure of drugs metabolized by CYP2C8 (e.g., paclitaxel, pioglitazone, repaglinide, rosiglitazone) may be increased. Monitor these patients and adjust the dose of the concomitant drug(s) metabolized by CYP2C8 as required [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Effect of AUBAGIO on Warfarin
Coadministration of AUBAGIO with warfarin requires close monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR) because AUBAGIO may decrease peak INR by approximately 25%.
Effect of AUBAGIO on Oral Contraceptives
AUBAGIO may increase the systemic exposures of ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel. Consideration should be given to the type or dose of contraceptives used in combination with AUBAGIO [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Effect of AUBAGIO on CYP1A2 substrates
Teriflunomide may be a weak inducer of CYP1A2 in vivo. In patients taking AUBAGIO, exposure of drugs metabolized by CYP1A2 (e.g., alosetron, duloxetine, theophylline, tizanidine) may be reduced. Monitor these patients and adjust the dose of the concomitant drug(s) metabolized by CYP1A2 as required [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Effect of AUBAGIO On Organic Anion Transporter 3 (OAT3) Substrates
Teriflunomide inhibits the activity of OAT3 in vivo. In patients taking AUBAGIO, exposure of drugs which are OAT3 substrates (e.g., cefaclor, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, ketoprofen, furosemide, methotrexate, zidovudine) may be increased. Monitor these patients and adjust the dose of the concomitant drug(s) which are OAT3 substrates as required [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Effect of AUBAGIO on BCRP And Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide B1 and B3 (OATP1B1/1B3) Substrates
Teriflunomide inhibits the activity of BCRP and OATP1B1/1B3 in vivo. For a patient taking AUBAGIO, the dose of rosuvastatin should not exceed 10 mg once daily. For other substrates of BCRP (e.g., mitoxantrone) and drugs in the OATP family (e.g., methotrexate, rifampin), especially HMG-Co reductase inhibitors (e.g., atorvastatin, nateglinide, pravastatin, repaglinide, and simvastatin), consider reducing the dose of these drugs and monitor patients closely for signs and symptoms of increased exposures to the drugs while patients are taking AUBAGIO [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Read the Aubagio Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/3/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Aubagio Information
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