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Details with Side Effects
Serious Allergic Reactions, Including Anaphylaxis
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving AUGMENTIN XR. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with AUGMENTIN XR, careful inquiry should be made regarding previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, AUGMENTIN XR should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.
AUGMENTIN XR should be used with caution in patients with evidence of hepatic dysfunction. Hepatic toxicity associated with the use of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium is usually reversible. Deaths have been reported (fewer than 1 death reported per estimated 4 million prescriptions worldwide). These have generally been cases associated with serious underlying diseases or concomitant medications [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including AUGMENTIN XR, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Skin Rash in Patients with Mononucleosis
A high percentage of patients with mononucleosis who receive amoxicillin develop an erythematous skin rash. Thus, AUGMENTIN XR should not be administered to patients with mononucleosis.
Potential for Microbial Overgrowth
The possibility of superinfections with mycotic or bacterial pathogens should be kept in mind during therapy. If superinfections occur (usually involving Pseudomonas spp. or Candida spp.), the drug should be discontinued and/or appropriate therapy instituted.
Development Of Drug-Resistant Bacteria
Prescribing AUGMENTIN XR in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION)
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Long-term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential. The mutagenic potential of AUGMENTIN was investigated in vitro with an Ames test, a human lymphocyte cytogenetic assay, a yeast test, and a mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay, and in vivo with mouse micronucleus tests and a dominant lethal test. All were negative apart from the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay, where weak activity was found at very high, cytotoxic concentrations. AUGMENTIN at oral doses of up to 1,200 mg/kg/day (1.9 times the maximum human dose of amoxicillin and 15 times the maximum human dose of clavulanate based on body surface area) was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance in rats dosed with a 2:1 ratio formulation of amoxicillin:clavulanate.
Use In Specific Populations
Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies performed in pregnant rats and mice given AUGMENTIN at oral doses up to 1,200 mg/kg/day revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to AUGMENTIN. In terms of body surface area, the doses in rats were 1.6 times the maximum human oral dose of amoxicillin and 13 times the maximum human dose for clavulanate. For mice, these doses were 0.9 and 7.4 times the maximum human oral dose of amoxicillin and clavulanate, respectively. There are, however, no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Labor and Delivery
Oral ampicillin is poorly absorbed during labor. Studies in guinea pigs have shown that intravenous administration of ampicillin decreased the uterine tone, frequency of contractions, height of contractions, and duration of contractions. However, it is not known whether the use of AUGMENTIN XR in humans during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, prolongs the duration of labor, or increases the likelihood that forceps delivery or other obstetrical intervention or resuscitation of the newborn will be necessary. In a single study in women with premature rupture of fetal membranes, it was reported that prophylactic treatment with AUGMENTIN may be associated with an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates
Amoxicillin has been shown to be excreted in human milk; therefore, caution should be exercised when AUGMENTIN XR is administered to a nursing woman.
The safety and effectiveness of AUGMENTIN XR have been established for pediatric patients weighing ≥ 40 kg who are able to swallow tablets. Use of AUGMENTIN XR in these pediatric patients is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled trials of adults with acute bacterial sinusitis and community-acquired pneumonia with additional data from a pediatric pharmacokinetic study. A pharmacokinetic study in pediatric patients (7 to 15 years of age and weighing ≥ 40 kg) was conducted [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
The adverse event profile in 44 pediatric patients who received at least one dose of AUGMENTIN XR was consistent with the established adverse event profile for the product in adults.
Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of AUGMENTIN XR, 18% were 65 years or older and 7% were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety and effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other clinical experience has not reported differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but a greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of dose dependent toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, it may be useful to monitor renal function.
The pharmacokinetics of AUGMENTIN XR have not been studied in patients with renal impairment. AUGMENTIN XR is contraindicated in patients with a creatinine clearance of < 30 mL/min and in hemodialysis patients [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Hepatically impaired patients should be dosed with caution and hepatic function monitored at regular intervals [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/12/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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