"Nov. 27, 2012 -- Countries that mix high-fructose corn syrup into processed foods and soft drinks have higher rates of diabetes than countries that don't use the sweetener, a new study shows.
In a study published in the journal Glo"...
Incidence and Management: Lactic acidosis is a rare, but serious, metabolic complication that can occur due to metformin accumulation during treatment with AVANDAMET; when it occurs, it is fatal in approximately 50% of cases. Lactic acidosis may also occur in association with a number of pathophysiologic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, and whenever there is significant tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxemia. Lactic acidosis is characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (>5 mmol/L), decreased blood pH, electrolyte disturbances with an increased anion gap, and an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio. When metformin is implicated as the cause of lactic acidosis, metformin plasma levels >5 mcg/mL are generally found.
The reported incidence of lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin is very low (approximately 0.03 cases/1,000 patient years of exposure, with approximately 0.015 fatal cases/1,000 patient years of exposure). Reported cases have occurred primarily in diabetic patients with significant renal insufficiency, including both intrinsic renal disease and renal hypoperfusion, often in the setting of multiple concomitant medical/surgical problems and multiple concomitant medications. Patients with congestive heart failure requiring pharmacologic management, in particular those with unstable or acute congestive heart failure who are at risk of hypoperfusion and hypoxemia, are at increased risk of lactic acidosis. The risk of lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal dysfunction and the patient's age. The risk of lactic acidosis may, therefore, be significantly decreased by regular monitoring of renal function in patients taking AVANDAMET and by use of the minimum effective dose of AVANDAMET. In particular, treatment of the elderly should be accompanied by careful monitoring of renal function. Treatment with AVANDAMET should not be initiated in patients ≥80 years of age unless measurement of creatinine clearance demonstrates that renal function is not reduced, as these patients are more susceptible to developing lactic acidosis. In addition, AVANDAMET should be promptly withheld in the presence of any condition associated with hypoxemia, dehydration, or sepsis. Because impaired hepatic function may significantly limit the ability to clear lactate, AVANDAMET should generally be avoided in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease. Patients should be cautioned against excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, when taking AVANDAMET, since alcohol potentiates the effects of metformin on lactate metabolism. In addition, AVANDAMET should be temporarily discontinued prior to any intravascular radiocontrast study and for any surgical procedure.
The onset of lactic acidosis often is subtle, and accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, and nonspecific abdominal distress. There may be associated hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias with more marked acidosis. The patient and the patient's physician must be aware of the possible importance of such symptoms and the patient should be instructed to notify the physician immediately if they occur. AVANDAMET should be withdrawn until the situation is clarified. Serum electrolytes, ketones, blood glucose and, if indicated, blood pH, lactate levels, and even blood metformin levels may be useful. Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of AVANDAMET, gastrointestinal symptoms, which are common during initiation of therapy, are unlikely to be drug related. Later occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease.
Levels of fasting venous plasma lactate above the upper limit of normal but less than 5 mmol/L in patients taking AVANDAMET do not necessarily indicate impending lactic acidosis and may be explainable by other mechanisms, such as poorly controlled diabetes or obesity, vigorous physical activity or technical problems in sample handling.
Lactic acidosis is a medical emergency that must be treated in a hospital setting. In a patient with lactic acidosis who is taking AVANDAMET, the drug should be discontinued immediately and general supportive measures promptly instituted. Because metformin is dialyzable (with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions), prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove the accumulated metformin. Such management often results in prompt reversal of symptoms and recovery [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Factors That May Predispose Patients to Lactic Acidosis: Assessment of Renal Function: Metformin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with the degree of impairment of renal function. Thus, patients with serum creatinine levels above the upper limit of normal for their age should not receive AVANDAMET. In patients with advanced age, AVANDAMET should be carefully titrated to establish the minimum dose for adequate glycemic effect, because aging is associated with reduced renal function. [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Use in Specific Populations.]
Before initiation of therapy with AVANDAMET and at least annually thereafter, renal function should be assessed and verified as normal. In patients in whom development of renal dysfunction is anticipated, renal function should be assessed more frequently and AVANDAMET discontinued if evidence of renal impairment is present.
Medications That Affect Renal Function: Concomitant medication(s) that may affect renal function or result in significant hemodynamic change or may interfere with the disposition of metformin, such as cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY], should be used with caution.
Hypoxic States: Cardiovascular collapse (shock) from whatever cause, acute congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and other conditions characterized by hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia. When such events occur in patients receiving AVANDAMET, the drug should be promptly discontinued.
Radiologic Studies With Intravascular lodinated Contrast Materials: Intravascular contrast studies with iodinated materials can lead to acute alteration of renal function and have been associated with lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Therefore, in patients in whom any such study is planned, AVANDAMET should be temporarily discontinued at the time of or prior to the procedure, and withheld for 48 hours subsequent to the procedure and reinstituted only after renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be normal.
Surgical Procedures: Use of AVANDAMET should be temporarily suspended for any surgical procedure (except minor procedures not associated with restricted intake of food and fluids) and should not be restarted until the patient's oral intake has resumed and renal function has been evaluated as normal.
Alcohol Intake: Alcohol potentiates the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism. Patients, therefore, should be warned against excessive alcohol intake, acute or chronic, while receiving AVANDAMET.
Change in Clinical Status of Patients With Previously Controlled Diabetes: A patient with type 2 diabetes previously well-controlled on AVANDAMET who develops laboratory abnormalities or clinical illness (especially vague and poorly defined illness) should be evaluated promptly for evidence of ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis. Evaluation should include serum electrolytes and ketones, blood glucose and, if indicated, blood pH, lactate, pyruvate, and metformin levels. If acidosis of either form occurs, AVANDAMET must be stopped immediately and other appropriate corrective measures initiated.
Rosiglitazone, like other thiazolidinediones, alone or in combination with other antidiabetic agents, can cause fluid retention, which may exacerbate or lead to heart failure. Patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If these signs and symptoms develop, the heart failure should be managed according to current standards of care. Furthermore, discontinuation or dose reduction of rosiglitazone must be considered [see BOXED WARNING].
Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) NYHA Class I and II treated with rosiglitazone have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. A 52-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled echocardiographic trial was conducted in 224 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and NYHA Class I or II CHF (ejection fraction ≤45%) on background antidiabetic and CHF therapy. An independent committee conducted a blinded evaluation of fluid-related events (including congestive heart failure) and cardiovascular hospitalizations according to predefined criteria (adjudication). Separate from the adjudication, other cardiovascular adverse events were reported by investigators. Although no treatment difference in change from baseline of ejection fractions was observed, more cardiovascular adverse events were observed with rosiglitazone treatment compared to placebo during the 52-week trial. (See Table 2.)
Table 2. Emergent Cardiovascular Adverse Events in Patients
With Congestive Heart Failure (NYHA Class I and II) Treated With Rosiglitazone
or Placebo (in Addition to Background Antidiabetic and CHF Therapy)
|Cardiovascular deaths||5 (5%)||4 (4%)|
|CHF worsening||7 (6%)||4 (4%)|
|- with overnight hospitalization||5 (5%)||4 (4%)|
|- without overnight hospitalization||2 (2%)||0 (0%)|
|New or worsening edema||28 (25%)||10 (9%)|
|New or worsening dyspnea||29 (26%)||19 (17%)|
|Increases in CHF medication||36 (33%)||20(18%)|
|Cardiovascular hospitalizationa||21 (19%)||15 (13%)|
|Ischemic adverse events||10 (9%)||5 (4%)|
|- Myocardial infarction||5 (5%)||2 (2%)|
|-Angina||6 (5%)||3 (3%)|
|a Includes hospitalization for any cardiovascular reason.|
Initiation of AVANDAMET in patients with established NYHA Class III or IV heart failure is contraindicated. AVANDAMET is not recommended in patients with symptomatic heart failure. [See BOXED WARNING.]
Patients experiencing acute coronary syndromes have not been studied in controlled clinical trials. In view of the potential for development of heart failure in patients having an acute coronary event, initiation of AVANDAMET is not recommended for patients experiencing an acute coronary event, and discontinuation of AVANDAMET during this acute phase should be considered.
Patients with NYHA Class III and IV cardiac status (with or without CHF) have not been studied in controlled clinical trials. AVANDAMET is not recommended in patients with NYHA Class III and IV cardiac status.
Congestive Heart Failure During Coadministration of Rosiglitazone With Insulin: In trials in which rosiglitazone was added to insulin, rosiglitazone increased the risk of congestive heart failure. Coadministration of rosiglitazone and insulin is not recommended. [See INDICATIONS]
In 7 controlled, randomized, double-blind trials which had durations from 16 to 26 weeks and which were included in a meta-analysis1, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized to Coadministration of rosiglitazone and insulin (N = 1,018) or insulin (N = 815). In these 7 trials, rosiglitazone was added to insulin. These trials included patients with long-standing diabetes (median duration of 12 years) and a high prevalence of pre-existing medical conditions, including peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, ischemic heart disease, vascular disease, and congestive heart failure. The total number of patients with emergent congestive heart failure was 23 (2.3%) and 8 (1.0%) in the rosiglitazone plus insulin and insulin groups, respectively.
Heart Failure in Observational Studies of Elderly Diabetic Patients Comparing Rosiglitazone to Pioglitazone: Three observational studies2-4 in elderly diabetic patients (age 65 years and older) found that rosiglitazone statistically significantly increased the risk of hospitalized heart failure compared to use of pioglitazone. One other observational study5 in patients with a mean age of 54 years, which also included an analysis in a subpopulation of patients >65 years of age, found no statistically significant increase in emergency department visits or hospitalization for heart failure in patients treated with rosiglitazone compared to pioglitazone in the older subgroup.
Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events
Cardiovascular adverse events have been evaluated in a meta-analysis of 52 clinical trials, in long-term, prospective, randomized, controlled trials, and in observational studies.
Meta-Analysis of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in a Group of 52 Clinical Trials: A meta-analysis was conducted retrospectively to assess cardiovascular adverse events reported across 52 double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trials (mean duration 6 months).1 These trials had been conducted to assess glucose-lowering efficacy in type 2 diabetes. Prospectively planned adjudication of cardiovascular events did not occur in most of the trials. Some trials were placebo-controlled and some used active oral antidiabetic drugs as controls. Placebo-controlled trials included monotherapy trials (monotherapy with rosiglitazone versus placebo monotherapy) and add-on trials (rosiglitazone or placebo, added to sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin). Active control trials included monotherapy trials (monotherapy with rosiglitazone versus sulfonylurea or metformin monotherapy) and add-on trials (rosiglitazone plus sulfonylurea or rosiglitazone plus metformin, versus sulfonylurea plus metformin). A total of 16,995 patients were included (10,039 in treatment groups containing rosiglitazone, 6,956 in comparator groups), with 5,167 patient-years of exposure to rosiglitazone and 3,637 patient-years of exposure to comparator. Cardiovascular events occurred more frequently for patients who received rosiglitazone than for patients who received comparators (see Table 3).
Table 3. Occurrence of Cardiovascular Events in a Meta-Analysis
of 52 Clinical Trials
|MACE (a composite of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, or stroke)||70 (0.7)||39 (0.6)|
|Myocardial Infarction||45 (0.4)||20 (0.3)|
|Cardiovascular Death||17 (0.2)||9(0.1)|
|All-cause Death||29 (0.3)||17 (0.2)|
|a Events are not exclusive: i.e., a patient with a cardiovascular death due to a myocardial infarction would be counted in 4 event categories (myocardial infarction; myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, or stroke; cardiovascular death; all-cause death).|
In this analysis, a statistically significant increased risk of myocardial infarction with rosiglitazone versus pooled comparators was observed. Analyses were performed using a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death), referred to hereafter as MACE. Rosiglitazone had a statistically nonsignificant increased risk of MACE compared to the pooled comparators. A statistically significant increased risk of myocardial infarction and statistically non-significant increased risk of MACE with rosiglitazone was observed in the placebo-controlled trials. In the active-controlled trials, there was no increased risk of myocardial infarction or MACE. (See Figure 1 and Table 4.)
Figure 1. Forest Plot of Odds Ratios (95% Confidence Intervals)
for MACE and Myocardial Infarction in the Meta-Analysis of 52 Clinical Trials
Table 4. Occurrence of MACE and Myocardial Infarction in
a Meta-Analysis of 52 Clinical Trials by Trial Type
|N||n (%)|| OR
|n (%)|| OR
|Active-Controlled Trials||RSG||2,119||16 (0.8%)|| 1.05
|10 (0.5%)|| 1.00
|Control||1,918||14 (0.7%)||9 (0.5%)|
|Placebo-Controlled Trials||RSG||8,124||54 (0.7%)|| 1.53
|35 (0.4%)|| 2.23
|Placebo||5,636||28 (0.5%)||13 (0.2%)|
|Overall||RSG||10,039||70 (0.7%)|| 1.44
|45 (0.4%)|| 1.8
|Control||6,956||39 (0.6%)||20 (0.3%)|
|RSG = rosiglitazone|
Of the placebo-controlled trials in th e meta-analysis, 7 trials had patients randomized to rosi glitazone plus insulin or insulin. There were more patients in the rosigli tazone plus insulin group compared to the insulin group with myocardial infarctions, MACE, cardiovascular deaths, and all-cause deaths (see Table 5). The total number of patients with stroke was 5 (0.5%) and 4 (0.5%) in the rosiglitazone plus insulin and insulin groups, respectively. The use of rosiglitazone in combination with insulin may increase the risk of myocardial infarction.
Table 5. Occurrence of Cardiovascular Events for Rosiglitazone
in Combination With Insulin in a Meta-Analysis of 52 Clinical Trials
(N = 815)
|OR (95% CI)|
|MACE (a composite of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, or stroke)||1.3||0.6||2.14 (0.70, 7.83)|
|Myocardial infarction||0.6||0.1||5.6 (0.67, 262.7)|
|Cardiovascular death||0.4||0.0||ND, (0.47, ∞)|
|All cause death||0.6||0.2||2.19 (0.38, 22.61)|
|ND = not defined
a Events are not exclusive: i.e., a patient with a cardiovascular death due to a myocardial infarction would be counted in 4 event categories (myocardial infarction; myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, or stroke; cardiovascular death; all-cause death).
Myocardial Infarction Events in Large, Long-Term, Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trials of Rosiglitazone: Data from 3 large, long-term, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials of rosiglitazone were assessed separately from the meta-analysis.6-8 These 3 trials included a total of 14,067 patients (treatment groups containing rosiglitazone N = 6,311; comparator groups N = 7,756), with patient-year exposure of 24,534 patient-years for rosiglitazone and 28,882 patient-years for comparator. Patient populations in the trials included patients with impaired glucose tolerance, patients with type 2 diabetes who were initiating oral agent monotherapy, and patients with type 2 diabetes who had failed monotherapy and were initiating dual oral agent therapy. Duration of follow-up exceeded 3 years in each trial.
In each of these trials, there was a statistically non-significant increase in the risk of myocardial infarction for rosiglitazone versus comparator medications.
In a long-term, randomized, placebo-controlled, 2x2 factorial trial intended to evaluate rosiglitazone, and separately ramipril (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor [ACEI]), on progression to overt diabetes in 5,269 subjects with glucose intolerance, the incidence of myocardial infarction was higher in the subset of subjects who received rosiglitazone in combination with ramipril than among subjects who received ramipril alone but not in the subset of subjects who received rosiglitazone alone compared to placebo.6 The higher incidence of myocardial infarction among subjects who received rosiglitazone in combination with ramipril was not confirmed in the two other large (total N = 8,798) long-term, randomized, active-controlled clinical trials conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes, in which 30% and 40% of patients in the two trials reported angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use at baseline.7,8
There have been no adequately designed clinical trials directly comparing rosiglitazone to pioglitazone on cardiovascular risks. However, in a long-term, randomized, placebo-controlled cardiovascular outcomes trial comparing pioglitazone to placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and prior macrovascular disease, pioglitazone was not associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction or total mortality.9
The increased risk of myocardial infarction observed in the meta-analysis and large, long-term controlled clinical trials, and the increased risk of MACE observed in the meta-analysis described above, have not translated into a consistent finding of excess mortality from controlled clinical trials or observational studies. Clinical trials have not shown any difference between rosiglitazone and comparator medications in overall mortality or CV-related mortality.
Mortality in Observational Studies of Rosiglitazone Compared to Pioglitazone: Three observational studies in elderly diabetic patients (age 65 years and older) found that rosiglitazone statistically significantly increased the risk of all-cause mortality compared to use of pioglitazone.2-4 One observational study5 in patients with a mean age of 54 years found no difference in all-cause mortality between patients treated with rosiglitazone compared to pioglitazone and reported similar results in the subpopulation of patients >65 years of age. One additional small, prospective, observational study10 found no statistically significant differences for CV mortality and all-cause mortality in patients treated with rosiglitazone compared to pioglitazone.
Rosiglitazone REMS (Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy) Program
Because of the potential increased risk of myocardial infarction, AVANDAMET is available only through a restricted distribution program called the AVANDIA-Rosiglitazone Medicines Access Program [see INDICATIONS]. Both prescribers and patients must enroll in the program to be able to prescribe or receive AVANDAMET, respectively. AVANDAMET will be available only from specially certified pharmacies participating in the program. As part of the program, prescribers will be educated about the potential increased risk of myocardial infarction and the need to limit the use of AVANDAMET to eligible patients. Prescribers will need to discuss with patients the risks and benefits of taking AVANDAMET. To enroll, call 1-800-AVANDIA or visit www.AVANDIA.com.
AVANDAMET should be used with caution in patients with edema. In a clinical trial in healthy volunteers who received rosiglitazone 8 mg once daily for 8 weeks, there was a statistically significant increase in median plasma volume compared to placebo. Since thiazolidinediones, including rosiglitazone, can cause fluid retention, which can exacerbate or lead to congestive heart failure, AVANDAMET should be used with caution in patients at risk for heart failure. Patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of heart failure [see BOXED WARNING and PATIENT INFORMATION].
In controlled clinical trials of patients with type 2 diabetes, mild to moderate edema was reported in patients treated with rosiglitazone, and may be dose-related. Patients with ongoing edema were more likely to have adverse events associated with edema if started on combination therapy with insulin and rosiglitazone [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. The use of AVANDAMET in combination with insulin is not recommended.
Dose-related weight gain was seen with rosiglitazone alone and rosiglitazone together with other hypoglycemic agents (see Table 6). No overall change in median weight was observed with AVANDAMET in drug-naive patients. The mechanism of weight gain with rosiglitazone is unclear but probably involves a combination of fluid retention and fat accumulation.
Table 6. Weight Changes (kg) From Baseline at Endpoint During
Clinical Trials [Median (25th, 75th, Percentile)]
|Duration||Control Group||Rosiglitazone 4 mg||Rosiglitazone 8 mg|
|26 weeks||Placebo|| -0.9 (-2.8, 0.9)
N = 210
| 1.0 (0.9,3.6)
N = 436
N = 439
|52 weeks||Sulfonylurea|| 2.0 (0, 4.0)
| 2.0 (-0.6, 4.0)
|2.6 (0, 5.3)
|Rosiglitazone + Control Therapy|
|Duration||Control Group||Rosiglitazone 4 mg||Rosiglitazone 8 mg|
|24-26 weeks||Sulfonylurea|| 0 (-1.0, 1.3)
| 2.2 (0.5, 4.0)
N = 613
|26 weeks||Metformin|| -1.4 (-3.2, 0.2)
| 0.8 (-1.0, 2.6)
|26 weeks||Insulin|| 0.9 (-0.5, 2.7)
| 5.4 (3.4, 7.3)
|AVANDAMET + Insulin|
|Duration||Control Group||AVANDAMET + Insulin|
|24 weeks||Insulin||2.6 kg (0.3, 4.8) N=145|| 3.3 kg (1.5, 6.0)
In a 4- to 6-year, monotherapy, comparative trial (ADOPT) in patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes not previously treated with antidiabetic medication, the median weight change (25th, 75th percentiles) from baseline at 4 years was 3.5 kg (0.0, 8.1) for rosiglitazone, 2.0 kg (-1.0, 4.8) for glyburide, and -2.4 kg (-5.4, 0.5) for metformin.
In postmarketing experience with rosiglitazone alone or in combination with other hypoglycemic agents, there have been rare reports of unusually rapid increases in weight and increases in excess of that generally observed in clinical trials. Patients who experience such increases should be assessed for fluid accumulation and volume-related events such as excessive edema and congestive heart failure [see BOXED WARNING].
Metformin: Since impaired hepatic function has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis, AVANDAMET should generally be avoided in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease.
Rosiglitazone: Liver enzymes should be measured prior to the initiation of therapy with AVANDAMET in all patients and periodically thereafter per the clinical judgment of the healthcare professional. Therapy with AVANDAMET should not be initiated in patients with increased baseline liver enzyme levels (ALT >2.5X upper limit of normal). Patients with mildly elevated liver enzymes (ALT levels ≤2.5X upper limit of normal) at baseline or during therapy with AVANDAMET should be evaluated to determine the cause of the liver enzyme elevation. Initiation of, or continuation of, therapy with AVANDAMET in patients with mild liver enzyme elevations should proceed with caution and include close clinical follow-up, including more frequent liver enzyme monitoring, to determine if the liver enzyme elevations resolve or worsen. If at any time ALT levels increase to >3X the upper limit of normal in patients on therapy with AVANDAMET, liver enzyme levels should be rechecked as soon as possible. If ALT levels remain >3X the upper limit of normal, therapy with AVANDAMET should be discontinued.
If any patient develops symptoms suggesting hepatic dysfunction, which may include unexplained nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, anorexia, and/or dark urine, liver enzymes should be checked. The decision whether to continue the patient on therapy with AVANDAMET should be guided by clinical judgment pending laboratory evaluations. If jaundice is observed, drug therapy should be discontinued.
In addition, if the presence of hepatic disease or hepatic dysfunction of sufficient magnitude to predispose to lactic acidosis is confirmed, therapy with AVANDAMET should be discontinued.
Macular edema has been reported in postmarketing experience in some diabetic patients who were taking rosiglitazone or another thiazolidinedione. Some patients presented with blurred vision or decreased visual acuity, but some patients appear to have been diagnosed on routine ophthalmologic examination. Most patients had peripheral edema at the time macular edema was diagnosed. Some patients had improvement in their macular edema after discontinuation of their thiazolidinedione. Patients with diabetes should have regular eye exams by an ophthalmologist, per the Standards of Care of the American Diabetes Association. Additionally, any diabetic who reports any kind of visual symptom should be promptly referred to an ophthalmologist, regardless of the patient's underlying medications or other physical findings. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS.]
In a 4- to 6-year comparative trial (ADOPT) of glycemic control with monotherapy in drug-naive patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, an increased incidence of bone fracture was noted in female patients taking rosiglitazone. Over the 4- to 6-year period, the incidence of bone fracture in females was 9.3% (60/645) for rosiglitazone versus 3.5% (21/605) for glyburide and 5.1% (30/590) for metformin. This increased incidence was noted after the first year of treatment and persisted during the course of the trial. The majority of the fractures in the women who received rosiglitazone occurred in the upper arm, hand, and foot. These sites of fracture are different from those usually associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis (e.g., hip or spine). Other trials suggest that this risk may also apply to men, although the risk of fracture among women appears higher than that among men. The risk of fracture should be considered in the care of patients treated with rosiglitazone, and attention given to assessing and maintaining bone health according to current standards of care.
Decreases in mean hemoglobin and hematocrit occurred in a dose-related fashion in adult patients treated with rosiglitazone [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. The observed changes may be related to the increased plasma volume observed with treatment with rosiglitazone and may be dose-related. The decrease in hemoglobin was seen more frequently in combination rosiglitazone and metformin therapy than in rosiglitazone therapy alone. Vitamin 812 deficiency may contribute to the observed reductions in hemoglobin. Initial and periodic monitoring of hematologic parameters (e.g., hemoglobin/hematocrit and red blood cell indices) should be performed, at least on an annual basis.
Vitamin B12 Levels
In controlled clinical trials of metformin of 29 weeks' duration, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels, without clinical manifestations, was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12-intrinsic factor complex, is, however, very rarely associated with anemia and appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or vitamin B12 supplementation. Certain individuals (those with inadequate vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal vitamin B12 levels. In these patients, routine serum vitamin B12 measurements at 2- to 3-year intervals may be useful. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be excluded if megaloblastic anemia is suspected.
Diabetes and Blood Glucose Control
When a patient stabilized on any diabetic regimen is exposed to stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, a temporary loss of glycemic control may occur. At such times, it may be necessary to withhold AVANDAMET and temporarily administer insulin. AVANDAMET may be reinstituted after the acute episode is resolved.
Hypoglycemia does not occur in patients receiving metformin alone under usual circumstances of use but could occur when caloric intake is deficient, when strenuous exercise is not compensated by caloric supplementation, or during concomitant use with hypoglycemic agents (such as sulfonylureas or insulin) or ethanol. Elderly, debilitated or malnourished patients, and those with adrenal or pituitary insufficiency or alcohol intoxication are particularly susceptible to hypoglycemic effects. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly and in people who are taking p-adrenergic blocking drugs.
Patients receiving rosiglitazone in combination with other hypoglycemic agents may be at risk for hypoglycemia, and a reduction in the dose of the concomitant agent may be necessary.
Therapy with rosiglitazone, like other thiazolidinediones, may result in ovulation in some premenopausal anovulatory women. As a result, these patients may be at an increased risk for pregnancy while taking AVANDAMET [see Use in Specific Populations]. Thus, adequate contraception in premenopausal women should be recommended. This possible effect has not been specifically investigated in clinical trials; therefore, the frequency of this occurrence is not known.
Although hormonal imbalance has been seen in preclinical studies [see Nonclinical Toxicology], the clinical significance of this finding is not known. If unexpected menstrual dysfunction occurs, the benefits of continued therapy with AVANDAMET should be reviewed.
Patient Counseling Information
See Medication Guide.
There are multiple medications available to treat type 2 diabetes. The benefits and risks of each available diabetes medication should be taken into account when choosing a particular diabetes medication for a given patient.
Patients should be informed of the risks and benefits of AVANDAMET. AVANDAMET should only be taken by adults with type 2 diabetes who are already taking rosiglitazone, or who are not already taking rosiglitazone and are unable to achieve adequate glycemic control on other diabetes medications, and, in consultation with their healthcare provider, have decided not to take pioglitazone (ACTOS) or pioglitazone-containing medications (ACTOPLUS MET, ACTOPLUS MET XR, DUETACT) for medical reasons. Inform patients that they must be enrolled in the AVANDLA-Rosiglitazone Medicines Access Program in order to receive AVANDAMET.
Patients should be informed of the following:
- The risks of lactic acidosis, its symptoms, and conditions that predispose to its development, as noted in the WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS sections, should be explained to patients. Patients should be advised to discontinue AVANDAMET immediately and to promptly notify their health practitioner if unexplained hyperventilation, myalgia, malaise, unusual somnolence, or other nonspecific symptoms occur. Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of AVANDAMET, gastrointestinal symptoms, which are common during initiation of metformin therapy, are unlikely to be drug related. Later occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease.
- Avoid excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, while receiving AVANDAMET.
- AVANDAMET is not recommended for patients with symptomatic heart failure.
- Results of a set of clinical trials suggest that treatment with AVANDAMET is associated with an increased risk for myocardial infarction (heart attack), especially in patients taking insulin. Clinical trials have not shown any difference between rosiglitazone and comparator medications in overall mortality or CV-related mortality.
- AVANDAMET is not recommended for patients who are taking insulin.
- Management of type 2 diabetes should include diet control. Caloric restriction, weight loss, and exercise are essential for the proper treatment of the diabetic patient because they help improve insulin sensitivity. This is important not only in the primary treatment of type 2 diabetes but also in maintaining the efficacy of drug therapy.
- It is important to adhere to dietary instructions and to regularly have blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc), renal function, and hematologic parameters tested. It can take 2 weeks to see a reduction in blood glucose and 2 to 3 months to see the full effect of AVANDAMET.
- Blood will be drawn to check their liver function prior to the start of therapy and periodically thereafter per the clinical judgment of the healthcare professional. Patients with unexplained symptoms of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, anorexia, or dark urine should immediately report these symptoms to their physician.
- Patients who experience an unusually rapid increase in weight or edema or who develop shortness of breath or other symptoms of heart failure while on AVANDAMET should immediately report these symptoms to their physician.
- Therapy with AVANDAMET, like other thiazolidinediones, may result in ovulation in some premenopausal anovulatory women. As a result, these patients may be at an increased risk for pregnancy while taking AVANDAMET. Thus, adequate contraception in premenopausal women should be recommended. This possible effect has not been specifically investigated in clinical trials so the frequency of this occurrence is not known.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No animal studies have been conducted with AVANDAMET. The following data are based on findings in studies performed with rosiglitazone or metformin individually.
Rosiglitazone: A 2-year carcinogenicity study was conducted in Charles River CD-I mice at doses of 0.4,1.5, and 6 mg/kg/day in the diet (highest dose equivalent to approximately 12 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET). Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 2 years by oral gavage at doses of 0.05, 0.3, and 2 mg/kg/day (highest dose equivalent to approximately 10 and 20 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET for male and female rats, respectively).
Rosiglitazone was not carcinogenic in the mouse. There was an increase in incidence of adipose hyperplasia in the mouse at doses ≥1.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET). In rats, there was a significant increase in the incidence of benign adipose tissue tumors (lipomas) at doses ≥0.3 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET). These proliferative changes in both species are considered due to the persistent pharmacological overstimulation of adipose tissue.
Rosiglitazone was not mutagenic or clastogenic in the in vitro bacterial assays for gene mutation, the in vitro chromosome aberration test in human lymphocytes, the in vivo mouse micronucleus test, and the in vivo/in vitro rat UDS assay. There was a small (about 2-fold) increase in mutation in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay in the presence of metabolic activation.
Rosiglitazone had no effects on mating or fertility of male rats given up to 40 mg/kg/day (approximately 116 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET). Rosiglitazone altered estrous cyclicity (2 mg/kg/day) and reduced fertility (40 mg/kg/day) of female rats in association with lower plasma levels of progesterone and estradiol (approximately 20 and 200 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET, respectively). No such effects were noted at 0.2 mg/kg/day (approximately 3 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET). In juvenile rats dosed from 27 days of age through to sexual maturity (at up to 40 mg/kg/day), there was no effect on male reproductive performance, or on estrous cyclicity, mating performance or pregnancy incidence in females (approximately 68 times human AUC at the maximum recommended daily dose of rosiglitazone). In monkeys, rosiglitazone (0.6 and 4.6 mg/kg/day; approximately 3 and 15 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET, respectively) diminished the follicular phase rise in serum estradiol with consequential reduction in the luteinizing hormone surge, lower luteal phase progesterone levels, and amenorrhea. The mechanism for these effects appears to be direct inhibition of ovarian steroidogenesis.
Metformin: Long-term carcinogenicity studies have been performed in rats (dosing duration of 104 weeks) and mice (dosing duration of 91 weeks) at doses up to and including 900 mg/kg/day and 1,500 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are both approximately 4 times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 2,000 mg of the metformin component of AVANDAMET based on body surface area comparisons. No evidence of carcinogenicity with metformin was found in either male or female mice. Similarly, there was no tumorigenic potential observed with metformin in male rats. There was, however, an increased incidence of benign stromal uterine polyps in female rats treated with 900 mg/kg/day.
There was no evidence of mutagenic potential of metformin in the following in vitro tests: Ames test (S. typhimurium), gene mutation test (mouse lymphoma cells), or chromosomal aberrations test (human lymphocytes). Results in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test were also negative.
Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by metformin when administrated at doses as high as 600 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 3 times the maximum recommended human daily dose of the metformin component of AVANDAMET based on body surface area comparisons.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defects, loss, or other adverse outcome regardless of drug exposure. This background risk is increased in pregnancies complicated by hyperglycemia and may be decreased with good metabolic control. It is essential for patients with diabetes or history of gestational diabetes to maintain good metabolic control before conception and throughout pregnancy. Careful monitoring of glucose control is essential in such patients. Most experts recommend that insulin monotherapy be used during pregnancy to maintain blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible. AVANDAMET should not be used during pregnancy.
Human Data: There are no adequate and well-controlled trials with AVANDAMET or its individual components in pregnant women. Rosiglitazone has been reported to cross the human placenta and be detectable in fetal tissue. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
Animal Studies: No animal studies have been conducted with AVANDAMET. The following data are based on findings in studies performed with rosiglitazone or metformin individually.
Rosiglitazone: There was no effect on implantation or the embryo with rosiglitazone treatment during early pregnancy in rats, but treatment during mid-late gestation was associated with fetal death and growth retardation in both rats and rabbits. Teratogenicity was not observed at doses up to 3 mg/kg in rats and 100 mg/kg in rabbits (approximately 20 and 75 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET, respectively). Rosiglitazone caused placental pathology in rats (3 mg/kg/day). Treatment of rats during gestation through lactation reduced litter size, neonatal viability, and postnatal growth, with growth retardation reversible after puberty. For effects on the placenta, embryo/fetus, and offspring, the no-effect dose was 0.2 mg/kg/day in rats and 15 mg/kg/day in rabbits. These no-effect levels are approximately 4 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET. Rosiglitazone reduced the number of uterine implantations and live offspring when juvenile female rats were treated at 40 mg/kg/day from 27 days of age through to sexual maturity (approximately 68 times human AUC at the maximum recommended daily dose). The no-effect level was 2 mg/kg/day (approximately 4 times human AUC at the maximum recommended daily dose). There was no effect on pre- or post-natal survival or growth.
Metformin: Metformin was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day. This represents an exposure of about 2 and 6 times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 2,000 mg based on body surface area comparisons for rats and rabbits, respectively. Determination of fetal concentrations demonstrated a partial placental barrier to metformin.
Labor and Delivery
The effect of AVANDAMET or its components on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.
No studies have been conducted with AVANDAMET. In studies performed with the individual components, both rosiglitazone-related material and metformin were detectable in milk from lactating rats. It is not known whether rosiglitazone or metformin is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, AVANDAMET should not be administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness of AVANDAMET in pediatric patients have not been established. AVANDAMET and rosiglitazone are not indicated for use in pediatric patients.
Metformin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney and because the risk of serious adverse reactions to the drug is greater in patients with impaired renal function, AVANDAMET should only be used in patients with normal renal function [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Because reduced renal function is associated with increasing age, AVANDAMET should be used with caution in elderly patients. Care should be taken in dose selection and should be based on careful and regular monitoring of renal function. Generally, elderly patients should not be titrated to the maximum dose of AVANDAMET [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
1. Food and Drug Administration Briefing Document. Joint meeting of the Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs and Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committees. July 13-14, 2010.
2. Winkelmayer WC, et al. Comparison of cardiovascular outcomes in elderly patients with diabetes who initiated rosiglitazone vs pioglitazone therapy. Arch Intern Med 2008;168(21):2368-2375.
3. Juurlink DN, et al. Adverse cardiovascular events during treatment with pioglitazone and rosiglitazone: population based cohort study. BMJ 2009; 339.
4. Graham DJ, et al. Risk of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and death in elderly medicare patients treated with rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. JAMA 2010;304:411-418.
5. Wertz DA, et al. Risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with Thiazolidinediones in a managed-care population. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2010;3: 538-545.
6. DREAM Trial Investigators. Effect of rosiglitazone on the frequency of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2QQ6;368:1096-1105.
7. Kahn S, et al. Glycemic durability of rosiglitazone, metformin or glyburide monotherapy. New England Journal of Medicine 2006, 355:2427-2443.
8. Home P, et al. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes in oral agent combination therapy for type 2 diabetes (RECORD): a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial. Lancet 2009, 373:2125-35.
9. Dormandy J et al. Secondary prevention of macro vascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes in the PROactive study (Prospective Pioglitazone Clinical Trial in Macrovascular Events): a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2005, 366:1279-89.
10. Bilik D, et al. Thiazolidinediones, cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality: translating research into action for diabetes (TRIAD). Pharmocoepidemiol Drug Saf 20l0; 19:715-721.
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/2/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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