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Onglyza (saxagliptin) is an oral drug approved in July of 2009 for the control of blood glucose in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Onglyza (saxagliptin) is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhib"...
(rosiglitazone maleate) Tablets
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Details with Side Effects
WARNING: CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE AND MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
- Thiazolidinediones, including rosiglitazone, cause or exacerbate congestive heart failure in some patients [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. After initiation of AVANDIA, and after dose increases, observe patients carefully for signs and symptoms of heart failure (including excessive, rapid weight gain, dyspnea, and/or edema). If these signs and symptoms develop, the heart failure should be managed according to current standards of care. Furthermore, discontinuation or dose reduction of AVANDIA must be considered.
- AVANDIA is not recommended in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Initiation of AVANDIA in patients with established NYHA Class III or IV heart failure is contraindicated. [See CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.]
- A meta-analysis of 52 clinical trials (mean duration 6 months; 16,995 total patients), most of which compared AVANDIA to placebo, showed AVANDIA to be associated with a statistically significant increased risk of myocardial infarction. Three other trials (mean duration 46 months; 14,067 total patients), comparing AVANDIA to some other approved oral antidiabetic agents or placebo, showed a statistically non-significant increased risk of myocardial infarction, and a statistically non-significant decreased risk of death. There have been no clinical trials directly comparing cardiovascular risk of AVANDIA and ACTOS® (pioglitazone, another thiazolidinedione), but in a separate trial, pioglitazone (when compared to placebo) did not show an increased risk of myocardial infarction or death. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.]
- Because of the potential increased risk of myocardial infarction, AVANDIA is available only through a restricted distribution program called the AVANDIA-Rosiglitazone Medicines Access Program. Both prescribers and patients need to enroll in the program. To enroll, call 1-800-AVANDIA or visit www.AVANDIA.com. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.]
Rosiglitazone maleate is not chemically or functionally related to the sulfonylureas, the biguanides, or the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.
Chemically, rosiglitazone maleate is (±)-5-[[4-[2-(methyl-2- pyridinylamino)ethoxy]phenyl]methyl]-2,4-thiazolidinedione, (Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1) with a molecular weight of 473.52 (357.44 free base). The molecule has a single chiral center and is present as a racemate. Due to rapid interconversion, the enantiomers are functionally indistinguishable. The structural formula of rosiglitazone maleate is:
The molecular formula is C18H19N3O3S•C4H4O4. Rosiglitazone maleate is a white to off-white solid with a melting point range of 122° to 123°C. The pKa values of rosiglitazone maleate are 6.8 and 6.1. It is readily soluble in ethanol and a buffered aqueous solution with pH of 2.3; solubility decreases with increasing pH in the physiological range.
Each pentagonal film-coated TILTAB tablet contains rosiglitazone maleate equivalent to rosiglitazone, 2 mg, 4 mg, or 8 mg, for oral administration. Inactive ingredients are: Hypromellose 2910, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol 3000, sodium starch glycolate, titanium dioxide, triacetin, and 1 or more of the following: Synthetic red and yellow iron oxides and talc.
What are the possible side effects of rosiglitazone (Avandia)?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Stop using rosiglitazone and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:
- feeling short of breath, even with mild exertion;
- swelling or rapid weight gain;
- chest pain or heavy feeling, pain spreading to the arm or shoulder, sweating, general ill feeling;
- nausea, stomach pain, low fever, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the...
What are the precautions when taking rosiglitazone maleate (Avandia)?
Before taking rosiglitazone, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other "glitazones" such as pioglitazone; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Promptly talk with your doctor or pharmacist about the benefits and possible risks of this medication, even if you have been taking it for awhile, especially if you have heart problems. Do not stop taking it unless directed to do so.
This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes), very high blood glucose (diabetic...
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/30/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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