"What are oral diabetes medications and how do they work?
Insulin is a hormone produced by cells in the pancreas called beta cells. Insulin helps the body use blood glucose (a type of sugar) for energy. People with type 2 diabetes "...
(rosiglitazone maleate) Tablets
CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE
- Thiazolidinediones, including rosiglitazone, cause or exacerbate congestive heart failure in some patients [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. After initiation of AVANDIA, and after dose increases, observe patients carefully for signs and symptoms of heart failure (including excessive, rapid weight gain, dyspnea, and/or edema). If these signs and symptoms develop, the heart failure should be managed according to current standards of care. Furthermore, discontinuation or dose reduction of AVANDIA must be considered.
- AVANDIA is not recommended in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Initiation of AVANDIA in patients with established NYHA Class III or IV heart failure is contraindicated. [See CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
AVANDIA (rosiglitazone maleate) is an oral antidiabetic agent which acts primarily by increasing insulin sensitivity. AVANDIA improves glycemic control while reducing circulating insulin levels.
Rosiglitazone maleate is not chemically or functionally related to the sulfonylureas, the biguanides, or the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.
Chemically, rosiglitazone maleate is (±)-5-[[4-[2-(methyl-2-pyridinylamino)ethoxy]phenyl]methyl]-2,4-thiazolidinedione, (Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1) with a molecular weight of 473.52 (357.44 free base). The molecule has a single chiral center and is present as a racemate. Due to rapid interconversion, the enantiomers are functionally indistinguishable. The structural formula of rosiglitazone maleate is:
The molecular formula is C18H19N3O3S•C4H4O4. Rosiglitazone maleate is a white to off white solid with a melting point range of 122° to 123°C. The pKa values of rosiglitazone maleate are 6.8 and 6.1. It is readily soluble in ethanol and a buffered aqueous solution with pH of 2.3; solubility decreases with increasing pH in the physiological range.
Each pentagonal film-coated TILTAB tablet contains rosiglitazone maleate equivalent to rosiglitazone, 2 mg, 4 mg, or 8 mg, for oral administration. Inactive ingredients are: hypromellose 2910, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol 3000, sodium starch glycolate, titanium dioxide, triacetin, and 1 or more of the following: synthetic red and yellow iron oxides and talc.
What are the possible side effects of rosiglitazone (Avandia)?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Stop using rosiglitazone and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:
- feeling short of breath, even with mild exertion;
- swelling or rapid weight gain;
- chest pain or heavy feeling, pain spreading to the arm or shoulder, sweating, general ill feeling;
- nausea, stomach pain, low fever, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the...
What are the precautions when taking rosiglitazone maleate (Avandia)?
Before taking rosiglitazone, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other "glitazones" such as pioglitazone; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver disease, heart disease (e.g., congestive heart failure, heart attack, angina), fluid in your lungs, swelling (edema), anemia, high blood cholesterol, eye (retina) problems, bone problems (e.g., osteoporosis, osteopenia).
You may experience blurred vision, dizziness, or drowsiness due to extremely low or high blood sugar levels. Do not drive, use machinery, or do...
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/27/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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