"Dec. 28, 2011 -- The cancer drug Avastin helped stop the spread of ovarian cancer in patients with an advanced form of the disease, two major studies have found. But it is not clear whether it helps patients to live longer than other cancer treat"...
Gastrointestinal Perforations And Fistulae
Serious and sometimes fatal gastrointestinal perforation occurs at a higher incidence in Avastin treated patients compared to controls. The incidence of gastrointestinal perforation ranged from 0.3 to 3.2% across clinical studies. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS] From a clinical trial in patients with persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer (Study 9), gastrointestinal perforations were reported in 3.2% of Avastin treated patients, all of whom had a history of prior pelvic radiation. Fatal outcome was reported in < 1% of Avastin-treated patients. In a platinum-resistant ovarian cancer trial (Study 10), the incidence of GI perforation was 1.7% (3/179). In this trial, patients with evidence of recto-sigmoid involvement by pelvic examination or bowel involvement on CT scan or clinical symptoms of bowel obstruction were excluded.
The typical presentation may include abdominal pain, nausea, emesis, constipation, and fever. Perforation can be complicated by intra-abdominal abscess, fistula formation, and the need for diverting ostomies. The majority of cases occurred within the first 50 days of initiation of Avastin. Avoid use of Avastin in patients with ovarian cancer who have evidence of recto-sigmoid involvement by pelvic examination or bowel involvement on CT scan or clinical symptoms of bowel obstruction. Permanently discontinue Avastin in patients with gastrointestinal perforation.
In Avastin clinical trials, gastrointestinal fistulae have been reported with an incidence of up to 2% in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and ovarian cancer. In a cervical cancer trial (Study 9), the incidence of gastrointestinal-vaginal fistulae was 8.3% in Avastin-treated patients and 0.9% in control patients, all of whom had a history of prior pelvic radiation. Patients who develop GI vaginal fistulas may also have bowel obstructions and require surgical intervention as well as diverting ostomies. [See BOXED WARNING, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]
Serious and sometimes fatal fistula formation involving tracheo-esophageal, bronchopleural, biliary, vaginal, renal and bladder sites occurs at a higher incidence in Avastin-treated patients compared to controls. Uncommon ( < 1%) reports of fistulae that involve areas of the body other than the gastrointestinal tract were observed in clinical trials across various indications and have also been reported in post-marketing experience. Most events occurred within the first 6 months of Avastin therapy.
From a clinical trial in patients with persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer (Study 9), 1.8% of Avastin-treated patients and 1.4% of control patients were reported to have had nongastrointestinal vaginal, vesical, or female genital tract fistulae.
Permanently discontinue Avastin in patients with tracheoesophageal (TE) fistula or any Grade 4 fistula. Discontinue Avastin in patients with fistula formation involving an internal organ. [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]
Surgery And Wound Healing Complications
Avastin impairs wound healing in animal models. [See Nonclinical Toxicology] In clinical trials, administration of Avastin was not allowed until at least 28 days after surgery. In a controlled clinical trial, the incidence of wound healing complications, including serious and fatal complications, in patients with mCRC who underwent surgery during the course of Avastin treatment was 15% and in patients who did not receive Avastin, was 4%. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS]
Avastin should not be initiated for at least 28 days following surgery and until the surgical wound is fully healed. Discontinue Avastin in patients with wound healing complications requiring medical intervention.
The appropriate interval between the last dose of Avastin and elective surgery is unknown; however, the half-life of Avastin is estimated to be 20 days. Suspend Avastin for at least 28 days prior to elective surgery. Do not administer Avastin until the wound is fully healed. [See BOXED WARNING, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]
Necrotizing fasciitis including fatal cases, has been reported in patients treated with Avastin; usually secondary to wound healing complications, gastrointestinal perforation or fistula formation. Discontinue Avastin therapy in patients who develop necrotizing fasciitis. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS]
Avastin can result in two distinct patterns of bleeding: minor hemorrhage, most commonly Grade 1 epistaxis; and serious, and in some cases fatal, hemorrhagic events. Severe or fatal hemorrhage, including hemoptysis, gastrointestinal bleeding, hematemesis, CNS hemorrhage, epistaxis, and vaginal bleeding occurred up to five-fold more frequently in patients receiving Avastin compared to patients receiving only chemotherapy. Across indications, the incidence of Grade ≥ 3 hemorrhagic events among patients receiving Avastin ranged from 0.4 to 6.9 %. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS.]
Serious or fatal pulmonary hemorrhage occurred in four of 13 (31%) patients with squamous cell histology and two of 53 (4%) patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer receiving Avastin and chemotherapy compared to none of the 32 (0%) patients receiving chemotherapy alone.
In clinical studies in non-small cell lung cancer where patients with CNS metastases who completed radiation and surgery more than 4 weeks prior to the start of Avastin were evaluated with serial CNS imaging, symptomatic Grade 2 CNS hemorrhage was documented in one of 83 Avastin-treated patients (rate 1.2%, 95% CI 0.06%-5.93%).
Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 8 of 163 patients with previously treated glioblastoma; two patients had Grade 3-4 hemorrhage.
Arterial Thromboembolic Events
Serious, sometimes fatal, arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) including cerebral infarction, transient ischemic attacks, myocardial infarction, angina, and a variety of other ATE occurred at a higher incidence in patients receiving Avastin compared to those in the control arm. Across indications, the incidence of Grade ≥ 3 ATE in the Avastin containing arms was 2.6% compared to 0.8% in the control arms. Among patients receiving Avastin in combination with chemotherapy, the risk of developing ATE during therapy was increased in patients with a history of arterial thromboembolism, diabetes, or age greater than 65 years. [See Use In Specific Populations]
Venous Thromboembolic Events
Patients treated for persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer with Avastin may be at increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE).
From a clinical trial in patients with persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer (Study 9), Grade ≥ 3 VTE were reported in 10.6% of patients treated with chemotherapy and Avastin compared with 5.4% in patients receiving chemotherapy alone. Permanently discontinue Avastin in patients with life-threatening (Grade 4) VTE, including pulmonary embolism. [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, ADVERSE REACTIONS]
The incidence of severe hypertension is increased in patients receiving Avastin as compared to controls. Across clinical studies the incidence of Grade 3 or 4 hypertension ranged from 5-18%. Monitor blood pressure every two to three weeks during treatment with Avastin. Treat with appropriate anti-hypertensive therapy and monitor blood pressure regularly. Continue to monitor blood pressure at regular intervals in patients with Avastin-induced or -exacerbated hypertension after discontinuation of Avastin.
Temporarily suspend Avastin in patients with severe hypertension that is not controlled with medical management. Discontinue Avastin in patients with hypertensive crisis or hypertensive encephalopathy. [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES)
PRES has been reported with an incidence of < 0.5% in clinical studies. The onset of symptoms occurred from 16 hours to 1 year after initiation of Avastin. PRES is a neurological disorder which can present with headache, seizure, lethargy, confusion, blindness and other visual and neurologic disturbances. Mild to severe hypertension may be present. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of PRES.
Discontinue Avastin in patients developing PRES. Symptoms usually resolve or improve within days, although some patients have experienced ongoing neurologic sequelae. The safety of reinitiating Avastin therapy in patients previously experiencing PRES is not known. [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]
The incidence and severity of proteinuria is increased in patients receiving Avastin as compared to controls. Nephrotic syndrome occurred in < 1% of patients receiving Avastin in clinical trials, in some instances with fatal outcome. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS] In a published case series, kidney biopsy of six patients with proteinuria showed findings consistent with thrombotic microangiopathy.
Monitor proteinuria by dipstick urine analysis for the development or worsening of proteinuria with serial urinalyses during Avastin therapy. Patients with a 2 + or greater urine dipstick reading should undergo further assessment with a 24-hour urine collection.
Suspend Avastin administration for ≥ 2 grams of proteinuria/24 hours and resume when proteinuria is < 2 gm/24 hours. Discontinue Avastin in patients with nephrotic syndrome. [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION] Data from a postmarketing safety study showed poor correlation between UPCR (Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio) and 24 hour urine protein (Pearson Correlation 0.39 (95% CI 0.17, 0.57). [See Use in Specific Populations]
Infusion reactions reported in the clinical trials and post-marketing experience include hypertension, hypertensive crises associated with neurologic signs and symptoms, wheezing, oxygen desaturation, Grade 3 hypersensitivity, chest pain, headaches, rigors, and diaphoresis. In clinical studies, infusion reactions with the first dose of Avastin were uncommon ( < 3%) and severe reactions occurred in 0.2% of patients.
Stop infusion if a severe infusion reaction occurs and administer appropriate medical therapy. [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]
Avastin may cause fetal harm based on the drug's mechanism of action and findings from animal studies. Congenital malformations were observed with the administration of bevacizumab to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis every 3 days at a dose as low as a clinical dose of 10 mg/kg. Furthermore, animal models link angiogenesis and VEGF and VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) to critical aspects of female reproduction, embryo-fetal development, and postnatal development. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with and for 6 months after the last dose of Avastin. [See Use in Specific Populations, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]
The incidence of ovarian failure was higher (34% vs. 2%) in premenopausal women receiving Avastin in combination with mFOLFOX chemotherapy as compared to those receiving mFOLFOX chemotherapy alone for adjuvant treatment for colorectal cancer, a use for which Avastin is not approved. Inform females of reproductive potential of the risk of ovarian failure prior to starting treatment with Avastin. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS, Use In Specific Populations]
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No carcinogenicity or mutagenicity studies of bevacizumab have been conducted.
Bevacizumab may impair fertility. Female cynomolgus monkeys treated with 0.4 to 20 times the recommended human dose of bevacizumab exhibited arrested follicular development or absent corpora lutea as well as dose-related decreases in ovarian and uterine weights, endometrial proliferation, and the number of menstrual cycles. Following a 4- or 12-week recovery period, there was a trend suggestive of reversibility. After the 12-week recovery period, follicular maturation arrest was no longer observed, but ovarian weights were still moderately decreased. Reduced endometrial proliferation was no longer observed at the 12-week recovery time point; however, decreased uterine weight, absent corpora lutea, and reduced number of menstrual cycles remained evident.
Use In Specific Populations
Avastin may cause fetal harm based on findings from animal studies and the drug's mechanism of action. [See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] Limited postmarketing reports describe cases of fetal malformations with use of Avastin in pregnancy; however, these reports are insufficient to determine drug associated risks. In animal reproduction studies, intravenous administration of bevacizumab to pregnant rabbits every 3 days during organogenesis at doses approximately 1 to 10 times the clinical dose of 10 mg/kg produced fetal resorptions, decreased maternal and fetal weight gain and multiple congenital malformations including corneal opacities and abnormal ossification of the skull and skeleton including limb and phalangeal defects [see Data]. Furthermore, animal models link angiogenesis and VEGF and VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) to critical aspects of female reproduction, embryofetal development, and postnatal development. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Pregnant rabbits dosed with 10 to 100 mg/kg bevacizumab (approximately 1 to 10 times the clinical dose of 10 mg/kg) every three days during the period of organogenesis (gestation day 6-18) exhibited decreases in maternal and fetal body weights and increased number of fetal resorptions. There were dose-related increases in the number of litters containing fetuses with any type of malformation (42.1% for the 0 mg/kg dose, 76.5% for the 30 mg/kg dose, and 95% for the 100 mg/kg dose ) or fetal alterations (9.1% for the 0 mg/kg dose, 14.8% for the 30 mg/kg dose, and 61.2% for the 100 mg/kg dose ). Skeletal deformities were observed at all dose levels, with some abnormalities including meningocele observed only at the 100 mg/kg dose level. Teratogenic effects included: reduced or irregular ossification in the skull, jaw, spine, ribs, tibia and bones of the paws; fontanel, rib and hindlimb deformities; corneal opacity; and absent hindlimb phalanges.
No data are available regarding the presence of bevacizumab in human milk, the effects on the breast fed infant, or the effects on milk production. Human IgG is present in human milk, but published data suggest that breast milk antibodies do not enter the neonatal and infant circulation in substantial amounts. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants from bevacizumab, advise a nursing woman that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Avastin.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Avastin may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise female patients of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Avastin and for 6 months following the last dose of Avastin. [See Use In Specific Populations]
Avastin increases the risk of ovarian failure and may impair fertility. Inform females of reproductive potential of the risk of ovarian failure prior to starting treatment with Avastin. Long term effects of Avastin exposure on fertility are unknown.
In a prospectively designed substudy of 179 premenopausal women randomized to receive chemotherapy with or without Avastin, the incidence of ovarian failure was higher in the Avastin arm (34%) compared to the control arm (2%). After discontinuation of Avastin and chemotherapy, recovery of ovarian function occurred in 22% (7/32) of these Avastin-treated patients. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS]
The safety, effectiveness and pharmacokinetic profile of Avastin in pediatric patients have not been established. In published literature reports, cases of non-mandibular osteonecrosis have been observed in patients under the age of 18 years who have received Avastin. Avastin is not approved for use in patients under the age of 18 years.
Antitumor activity was not observed among eight children with relapsed glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab and irinotecan. There is insufficient information to determine the safety and efficacy of Avastin in children with glioblastoma.
Juvenile cynomolgus monkeys with open growth plates exhibited physeal dysplasia following 4 to 26 weeks exposure at 0.4 to 20 times the recommended human dose (based on mg/kg and exposure). The incidence and severity of physeal dysplasia were dose-related and were partially reversible upon cessation of treatment.
In Study 1, severe adverse events that occurred at a higher incidence ( ≥ 2%) in patients aged ≥ 65 years as compared to younger patients were asthenia, sepsis, deep thrombophlebitis, hypertension, hypotension, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, diarrhea, constipation, anorexia, leukopenia, anemia, dehydration, hypokalemia, and hyponatremia. The effect of Avastin on overall survival was similar in elderly patients as compared to younger patients.
In Study 2, patients aged ≥ 65 years receiving Avastin plus FOLFOX4 had a greater relative risk as compared to younger patients for the following adverse events: nausea, emesis, ileus, and fatigue.
In Study 5, patients aged ≥ 65 years receiving carboplatin, paclitaxel, and Avastin had a greater relative risk for proteinuria as compared to younger patients. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Of the 742 patients enrolled in Genentech-sponsored clinical studies in which all adverse events were captured, 212 (29%) were age 65 or older and 43 (6%) were age 75 or older. Adverse events of any severity that occurred at a higher incidence in the elderly as compared to younger patients, in addition to those described above, were dyspepsia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, edema, epistaxis, increased cough, and voice alteration.
In an exploratory, pooled analysis of 1745 patients treated in five randomized, controlled studies, there were 618 (35%) patients aged ≥ 65 years and 1127 patients < 65 years of age. The overall incidence of arterial thromboembolic events was increased in all patients receiving Avastin with chemotherapy as compared to those receiving chemotherapy alone, regardless of age. However, the increase in arterial thromboembolic events incidence was greater in patients aged ≥ 65 years (8.5% vs. 2.9%) as compared to those < 65 years (2.1% vs. 1.4%). [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/10/2015
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